The county contains all of New Hampshire's Atlantic coast, which, at approximately 18 miles (29 km), is the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the U.S. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 795 square miles (2,060 km 2), of which 695 square miles (1,800 km 2) are land and 100 square miles (260 km 2) (13%) are water.
Strafford County was one of the five original counties identified for New Hampshire in 1769. It was named after William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford in the mistaken belief that he was the ancestor of governor John Wentworth – although they were distantly related, William had no descendants.
New Hampshire zählt zu den Neuenglandstaaten.. Die bedeutendsten Gebiete New Hampshires sind die Great North Woods (Große Nördliche Wälder), die White Mountains (Weißes Gebirge), die Lakes Region (Seenregion), die Seacoast Region (Meeresküste), das Merrimack-Tal, wo die meisten Einwohner leben, die Monadnock Region und die Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee Region.