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  1. Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for ...

  2. Philosophy of Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Philosophy of Science Association. The journal contains essays, discussion articles, and book reviews in the field of the philosophy of science.

  3. Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science.

    • What Makes Science Distinct?
    • Theories and Observations
    • Other Ideas
    • Related Pages
    • Other Websites

    Some people think that in earlier times, science was nothing but organized common sense. Thomas Henry Huxley thought this. However, during the twentieth century, science produced many ideas which were nothing like common sense, like general relativity. Then it was clear that science really was something different from common sense. But what was it? This is called the demarcation problem. The demarcation problem refers to the distinction between science and non-science (like pseudoscience). Karl Popper called this the central question in the philosophy of science.No solution to the problem has had full agreement among philosophers; some of them think the problem is insoluble or uninteresting. The logical positiviststried to base science on observation. In their view, truth was achieved by logic and observation. Non-science was non-observational and meaningless. Against that, Popper argued that the central property of science is falsifiability. All scientific claims can be proved fals...

    Both theory and observations are part of science, and they are tied together in a kind of cycle. A clear example was the prediction of Einstein that a source of gravity (such as a star) would bend light passing nearby. An expedition was organised in 1919 to record the positions of stars around the Sun during a solar eclipse. It showed that the positions of the stars close to the Sun were changed slightly from their normal expected positions. The light passing close to the Sun was pulled towards the sun by gravitation. This seemed to prove Einstein's general theory of relativity, published in 1915. Many year later, the proof was shown to be wrong. But by then other observations (of time dilation) showed that Einstein actually was right. Gravitational lensingproved that light was pulled towards the Sun. The point here is that the observation and the theory were connected. The observation would not have been made but for the theory, and then the observation was convincing evidence in f...

    Critiques of scientific method

    Is there any scientific method at all? Paul Feyerabend argued that no description of scientific method could possibly encompass all the approaches and methods used by scientists. Feyerabend objected to prescriptive scientific method on the grounds that any such method would stifle and cramp scientific progress. Feyerabend claimed, "the only principle that does not inhibit progress is: anything goes".

    Scientific revolutions

    Thomas Kuhndenied that it is ever possible to isolate the hypothesis being tested from the influence of the theory in which the observations are grounded. He argued that observations always rely on a specific paradigm, and that it is not possible to evaluate competing paradigms independently. By "paradigm" he meant a consistent "portrait" of the world, one that involves no logical contradictions and that is consistent with observations made from the point of view of the paradigm. More than on...

    An introduction to the Philosophy of Science, aimed at beginners - Paul Newall. Archived 2012-02-20 at the Wayback Machine

  4. Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science.

    • Overview
    • Auguste Comte and positivism
    • Epistemology
    • Ontology

    The philosophy of social science is the study of the logic, methods, and foundations of social sciences. Philosophers of social science are concerned with the differences and similarities between the social and the natural sciences, causal relationships between social phenomena, the possible existence of social laws, and the ontological significance of structure and agency.

    Comte first described the epistemological perspective of positivism in The Course in Positive Philosophy, a series of texts published between 1830 and 1842. These texts were followed by the 1848 work, A General View of Positivism. The first three volumes of the Course dealt chiefly with the natural sciences already in existence, whereas the latter two emphasised the inevitable coming of social science. Observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, and classifying the sc

    In any discipline, there will always be a number of underlying philosophical predispositions in the projects of scientists. Some of these predispositions involve the nature of social knowledge itself, the nature of social reality, and the locus of human control in action. Intellectuals have disagreed about the extent to which the social sciences should mimic the methods used in the natural sciences. The founding positivists of the social sciences argued that social phenomena can and should be st

    Structure and agency forms an enduring debate in social theory: "Do social structures determine an individual's behaviour or does human agency?" In this context 'agency' refers to the capacity of individuals to act independently and make free choices, whereas 'structure' refers to factors which limit or affect the choices and actions of individuals. Discussions over the primacy of structure or agency relate to the very core of social ontology. One attempt to reconcile postmodern critiques with t

  5. Philosophy of Science ist eine philosophische Fachzeitschrift, die sich ausschließlich dem Gebiet der Wissenschaftstheorie widmet. Vierteljährlich erscheint ein ca. 160 Seiten umfassendes Heft mit Essays, Diskussionen und Reviews.

    • 1934
    • University of Chicago Press (USA)
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