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  1. One notable critique of social science is found in Peter Winch's Wittgensteinian text The Idea of Social Science and its Relation to Philosophy (1958). Michel Foucault provides a potent critique in his archaeology of the human sciences , though Habermas and Richard Rorty have both argued that Foucault merely replaces one such system of thought with another.

  2. Empirical science historically developed out of philosophy or, more specifically, natural philosophy. Natural philosophy was distinguished from the other precursor of modern science, natural history , in that natural philosophy involved reasoning and explanations about nature (and after Galileo , quantitative reasoning), whereas natural history was essentially qualitative and descriptive.

  3. Methodological naturalism is the principle underlying all of modern science. Some philosophers extend this idea, so that it applies to all of philosophy as well. Science and philosophy, according to this view, are said to form a continuum. W.V. Quine, George Santayana, and other philosophers have advocated this view.