Teimuraz returned to eastern Georgia in 1615, taking advantage of a resurgence in Ottoman-Safavid hostilities, and there he defeated a Safavid force. However, when the Ottoman army postponed its invasion of the Safavids, Abbas was able to briefly send an army back to defeat Teimuraz, and redoubled his invasion after brokering a truce with the Ottomans. 
Akhalkalaki was founded by Bagrat IV of Georgia in 1064.  In 1066, the city was destroyed during the Seljuq invasions of the Kingdom of Georgia. In the 11th century, Akhalkalaki became one of the political and economical centres of Javakheti.