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  1. 29/12/2021 · Dec 29, 2021 · Catherine Fitzcharles King Francis Ii Illegitimate Child Rights. Born in 1658 to Catherine Pegge, Catherine died in infancy. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzcharles (1650-8 4) Born in 1650 the daughter of Elizabeth Killigrew, who had been a maid of honour to Charles II's mother, Queen Henrietta Maria, Elizabeth was the wife of Francis Boyle.

  2. 18/01/2022 · Charles FitzCharles died of dysentery at Tangier on 17 October 1680, at the age of 23, his body was returned to England and he was buried on 18 January 1681 in Westminster Abbey. Catherine Fitzcharles . Born in 1658 to Catherine Pegge,Catherine died in infancy. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzcharles (1650-8 4)

  3. 03/01/2022 · Catherine FitzCharles was the illegitimate daughter of Charles II of England and his mistress Catherine Pegge. Her older brother by one year, Charles FitzCharles, was made the 1st Earl of Plymouth by his father.

  4. 22/01/2022 · Catherine Pegge. Catherine was the daughter of Thomas Pegge. She had two children by the king: His son, Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth was born in 1657, and Catherine FitzCharles was born in 1658, and died a year later.

  5. 17/01/2022 · Lady Catherine FitzCharles Lady Charlotte Fitzroy Well Lord Alexander Charles Stuart was a direct descendant of King Charles II through his son, Lord Charles Lennox 1st Duke of Richmond, Duke of Lennox and his wife Lady y Anne Brudenell and through their son, Lord Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Sarah Cadogan.

    • Early Life, Civil War and Exile
    • Restoration
    • Foreign Policy and Marriage
    • Conflict with Parliament
    • Science
    • Later Years
    • Legacy
    • Titles, Styles, Honours and Arms
    • Issue
    • Bibliography

    Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. Charles was their second child. Their first son was born about a year before Charles, but died within a day. England, Scotland, and Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican, Presbyterian, and Catholic. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. He was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During th...

    After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. The Long Parliament dissolved itself and there was a general election for the first time in almost 20 years.The outgoing Parliament defined the electoral qualifications intending to bring about the return of a Presbyterian majority. The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted...

    Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed; England acquired Catherine's dowry of Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven islands of Bombay (the latter having a major influence on the development of the British Empire in India), together with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and libert...

    Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England, but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous".Clifford, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned rather than take the oath, and died shortly after, possibly from suicide...

    In Charles II's early childhood, William Cavendish, Earl of Newcastle was governor of the royal household and Brian Duppa, the Dean of Christchurch, was his tutor. Neither man thought that the study of science subjects was appropriate for a future king, and Newcastle even advised against studying any subject too seriously. However, as Charles grew older, the renowned surgeon William Harvey was appointed his tutor. He was famous for his work on blood circulation in the human body and already held the position of physician to Charles I; his studies were to influence Charles's own attitude to science. As the king's chief physician, Harvey accompanied Charles I to the Battle of Edgehill. There, in the morning, he was placed in charge of the two princes, Charles and his brother James,but the boys were back with their father for the start of the battle. In exile, Charles continued his education, including physics, chemistry and the mathematics of navigation. His tutors included the cleric...

    Charles faced a political storm over his brother James, a Catholic, being next in line to the throne. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). Shaftesbury's power base was strengthened when the House of Commons of 1679 introduced the Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession. Some even sought to confer the Crown on the Protestant Duke of Monmouth, the eldest of Charles's illegitimate children. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs(after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians).

    The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. Numerous accounts of his adventures were published, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the Restoration. Though not averse to his escape being ascribed to divine providence, Charles himself seems to have delighted most in his ability to sustain his disguise as a man of ordinary origins, and to move unrecognised through his realm. Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. Charles had no legitimate children, but acknowledged a dozen by seven mistresses, including five by Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. His other mistresses included Moll Davis, Nell Gwyn, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Lucy Walter and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of P...

    Titles and styles

    The official style of Charles II was "Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.


    1. KG: Knight of the Garter, 21 May 1638


    Charles's coat of arms as Prince of Wales was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Argent. His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).

    By Lucy Walter(c. 1630 – 1658): 1. James Crofts, later Scott (1649–1685), created Duke of Monmouth (1663) in England and Duke of Buccleuch(1663) in Scotland. Monmouth was born nine months after Walter and Charles II first met, and was acknowledged as his son by Charles II, but James II suggested that he was the son of another of her lovers, Colonel Robert Sidney, rather than Charles. Lucy Walter had a daughter, Mary Crofts, born after James in 1651, but Charles II was not the father, since he and Walter parted in September 1649. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, in 1660: 1. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy (1650–1684), married firstly James Howard and secondly William Paston, 2nd Earl of Yarmouth By Catherine Pegge: 1. Charles FitzCharles (1657–1680), known as "Don Carlo", created Earl of Plymouth(1675) 2. Catherine FitzCharles(born 1658; she either died young or became a nun at Dunkirk) By Barb...

    BBC staff (October 2003), Charles II and the women who bore his children (PDF), BBC
    "Nova et Vetera", British Medical Journal, 2 (4064): 1089, 1938, doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4064.1089, JSTOR 20301497, PMC 2210948, PMID 20781915
  6. 29/12/2021 · Patients often seek consultation with dentists for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The objectives of this article were to describe the methods of a large prospective cohort study of painful TMD management, practitioners’ and patients’ characteristics, and practitioners’ initial treatment recommendations conducted by The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (the “network”).