Charles William Ferdinand was born in the town of Wolfenbüttel on 9 October 1735, probably in Wolfenbüttel Castle.  He was the first-born son of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his wife Philippine Charlotte.
Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1 August 1713 – 26 March 1780) married Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia and had issue. Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (28 August 1714 – 4 May 1774 (O.S.)) married Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia and had issue.
Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him. Their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy.
Born in Weimar, he was the eldest son of Ernst August II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach (Ernest Augustus II), and Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. His father died when he was only nine months old ( 28 May 1758 ), and the boy was brought up under the regency and supervision of his mother.
Pavia alone held out, and on 24 February 1525 (Charles's twenty-fifth birthday), Charles's forces led by Charles de Lannoy captured Francis and crushed his army in the Battle of Pavia. In 1535 Francesco II Sforza died without heirs, and Charles V annexed the territory as a vacant Imperial state with the help of Massimiliano Stampa , one of the most influential courtiers of the late Duke. 
Charles II (1815–1830) The underage Duke Charles, the eldest son of Duke Frederick William (who had been killed in action), was put under the guardianship of George IV, the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom and Hanover. First, the young duke had a dispute over the date of his majority.
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