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  1. 01/01/2022 · Charles II, king of Navarre from 1349, who made various short-lived attempts to expand Navarrese power in both France and Spain. He was the son and successor of Joan of France, queen of Navarre, and Philip, count of Évreux.

  2. 16/01/2022 · Born on November 6, 1661 in the city of Madrid (Spain), Charles II of Spain, known as “The Bewitched”, was the last king of Spain and the House of Habsburgs. During his reign, he was lord of important territories such as Spain, Sicily and Naples, acting over much of the Italian territory with the exception of the Serenissima Republic of Venice and the Papal States.

  3. 04/01/2022 · Charles II was only three years old when he became the supreme ruler of the Spanish Empire in 1665. But anyone who took just one look at the child knew they were all doomed. Charles had come from a long line of prominent European nobles known as the Habsburgs– a family so exclusive that they frequently married one another in order to keep their blood line ‘pure’.

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    Charles was the only surviving son of Mariana of Austria (1634–1696) and Philip IV of Spain (1605–1665), who was 56 years old at the time of his birth. While European nobility commonly married within the same extended family to retain property, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs were unusual in the degree to which they followed this policy. Of eleven marriages contracted by Spanish monarchs between 1450 and 1661, the vast majority contained some element of consanguinity, while Philip and Mariana were one of two unions between uncle and niece. [a] One suggestion is this policy may have been partially driven by Spanish Limpieza de sangreor "blood purity" statutes enacted in the early 16th century and which remained in use until the 1860s. Inter-marriage accentuated a physical characteristic common to both Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs, the so-called 'Habsburg jaw'; a contemporary reported this was so pronounced in Charles that he swallowed his food without thoroughly chewing, which r...

    Since Charles was a legal minor when Philip died on 17 September 1665, Mariana was appointed Queen Regent by the Council of Castile. The Spanish Empire remained an enormous global confederation but its economic supremacy was increasingly challenged by the Dutch Republic and England, and its position in Europe destabilised by the expansionist policies of Louis XIV of France. Even modern criticisms of Mariana's competence in dealing with these issues are often based on reports by contemporaries, who generally believed women were incapable of exercising power on their own. Her ability to respond effectively to the challenges facing the Empire was hampered by an ongoing power struggle with Don Juan José de Austria, Charles's older illegitimate half-brother. In addition, enacting essential reforms was complicated since Spain was a personal union between the Crown of Castile and Crown of Aragon, each with very distinct political cultures and traditions.[b]Infighting between those who rule...

    Although Charles was reportedly devoted to her, Marie Louise was blamed for the failure to produce an heir, while primitive fertility treatments gave her severe intestinal problems. There has been considerable debate as to whether Charles was impotent, and if so, the cause; based on private interviews with Marie Louise, he may have suffered from premature ejaculation. The suggestion it was the result of inbreeding has not been proved, while a number of scientific studies dispute any linkage between fertility and consanguinity. After she died in February 1689, Charles married Maria Anna of Neuburg, one of the twelve children of Philip William, Elector Palatine, and sister-in-law to Emperor Leopold. Although partly selected because her family was famous for its fertility, she proved no more successful in producing an heir than her predecessor. By this stage, Charles was almost certainly impotent, since his autopsy revealed he had only one atrophiedtesticle. This made the question of h...

    The thirty-five year reign of Charles II has traditionally been viewed as one of decline and decay; in 1691, a foreign ambassador commented that "it is incomprehensible how this monarchy survives". More recent studies have criticised these views, historian Luis Ribot arguing "both the myth of decline and an incapable king are simplistic and inexact".Others attest his reign was crucial for the clearest signs of demographic recovery after decades of crisis, the first major attempts to reform peninsula trade, and the beginning of a more open approach to European thought and science. Although both the Spanish state and economy relied on silver and gold mined in the Americas, this had been the case since the 16th century, while bullion imports reached historic highs between 1670 and 1700. Despite their disastrous short-term impact, the financial measures ended the chronic instability which had affected the Spanish currency throughout the 17th century and helped drive sustainable economic...

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Ceballos, Francisco; Celsa, Quintero (2009). "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLOS ONE. 4 (4): e5174. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5174A. doi:10.13...
    Barton, Simon (2009). A History of Spain. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230200111.
    Beltrán, Alvarez; Carmen, Edna Lucía del (2012). "Proyecto de intervención para el claustro Colegio San Nicolás de Mira de la Órden de los Agustinos Calzados de Nuestra Señora de Gracia en Bogotá....
    Bittles, Grant JC (2002). "Does inbreeding lead to decreased human fertility?". Human Biology. 29 (2): 111–130. doi:10.1080/03014460110075657. PMID 11874619. S2CID 31317976.
  4. 15/01/2022 · Charles II, 1675: An Act for the better and more easy rebuilding the Towne of Northampton. Pages 798-801. Statutes of the Realm: Volume 5, 1628-80.

  5. 28/12/2021 · Ugly, short, weak, impotent, disabled, disfigured, mentally retarded. He was married but never had any sex with his wife. Even money and status cannot overcome shitty genetics. Chad in primitive African tribe lived better life than him. Genetics = all.

  6. 27/12/2021 · Charles II, 1662: An Act for preventing the Mischeifs and Dangers that may arise by certaine Persons called Quakers and others refusing to take lawfull Oaths. Pages 350-351 Statutes of the Realm: Volume 5, 1628-80 .

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