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  1. The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised/baptized members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous congregations, each governed by its bishops and adherents in local synods.

  2. The Eastern Orthodox Church is decentralised, having no central authority, earthly head or a single bishop in a leadership role. Thus, the Eastern Orthoox use a synodical system canonically, which is significantly different from the hierarchical organisation of the Catholic Church that follows the doctrine of papal supremacy.

  3. Both the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches formally believe themselves to be the continuation of the true church and the other to have fallen into schism, although in the past 20 years much work has been done toward ecumenism or reconciliation between the Oriental and Eastern Orthodox churches.

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    In 395, the Roman Empire was split into a western part and an eastern part. The western part lasted to the 5th or 6th century. Τhe exact dates are a point of debate. The eastern part, which is commonly called Byzantine Empire, lasted until the 15th century. The split of the Roman Empire also affected the church, which developed differently in both parts. In 1054, there was the East–West Schism. The western part developed what is now the Roman Catholic Church, and the eastern part is now called Eastern Orthodox Church. In the west, there is the Patriarch of Rome, who is commonly called the Pope. In the east, there is the Patriarch of Constantinople. Because of historical developments, many Eastern Orthodox churches also have a local Patriarch. In the west, the Pope is an absoluteleader. The Patriarch of Constantinople is the "first among equals"; his power is not absolute, as seen when meeting with other Patriarchs. His power is the same of all bishops, which is what a patriarch is.

    Some holidays include Christmas and Easter. Orthodox believe in everything in the Nicene Creed: 1. I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth and of all things visible and invisible. 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. 3. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten not created, of one essence with the Father through whom all things were made. 4. For us men and for our salvation He came down from heaven and was incarnate with the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. 5. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried. 6. On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. 7. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. 8. He will come again in glory to judge the living and dead. His kingdom shall have no end. 9. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the F...

    The many churches of the Orthodox Church are distinct in terms of administration and local culture, but for the most part exist in full communion with one another. Most of these churches are led by patriarchs. Most patriarchs recognise the Patriarch of Constantinopleas their spiritual leader. The following listing contains a selection of Eastern Orthodox Churches. Unless otherwise stated, they are in communion: 1. Mount Athos (a community of monasteries) 2. Albanian Orthodox Church 3. Antiochian Orthodox Church 4. Bulgarian Orthodox Church 5. Greek Orthodox Church 6. Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria 7. Church of Mount Sinai(one monastery) 8. Russian Orthodox Church 9. Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia 10. Romanian Orthodox Church In the 17th century a group of people split from the Eastern Orthodox Church because they did not agree with some changes that were introduced. These people are known as Old Believerstoday. There are two big groups of Old Believers and a few smaller...

    The Orthodox Church. Ware, Timothy. Pengiun Books, 1997. (ISBN 0-14-014656-3)
    The Orthodox Church; 455 Questions and Answers. Harakas, Stanley H. Light and Life Publishing Company, 1988. (ISBN 0-937032-56-5)
    • Overview
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    The canon law of the Eastern Orthodox Church consists of the ecclesiastical regulations recognised by the authorities of the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with the discipline, study, or practice of Eastern Orthodox jurisprudence. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, canon law is a behavioural standard that aims to apply dogma to practical situations in the daily life of Eastern Orthodox Christians. Unlike the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox canon law is corrective rather

    Eastern Orthodox canon law is "a standard for behavior" and "the attempt to apply dogma to practical situation in the daily life of each Christian". Eastern Orthodox canon law "the formalized part of divine law." Viscuso writes that the Eastern Orthodox canon law expresses two realities. Theologically, it is the expression of "God's truth given the time and circumstances"; ecclesiologically, it is the expression of the Eastern Orthodox Church's "pastoral life" and the Eastern Orthodox Church's h

    Eastern Orthodox canon law has three sources: 1. the Bible 2. Church legislations 3. ecclesiastical customs The Bible contain no "detailed system of Church organization"; the role of the Bible in E. O. canon law is that it "embodies principles of Christian doctrine from which rules may be extrapolated for solving disciplinary problems within the Church–but only the Church itself may do that." Church legislations are composed of the local councils and the Ecumenical councils ...

    The canon law of the Eastern Orthodox Church is not codified; the corpus of Eastern Orthodox canon law "was never streamlined or organized into a formal code of ecclesiastical law." Some hierarchs, priests and theologians have encouraged a codification in the past, but their will "did not go beyond the level of desire". Some canons of the Eastern Orthodox canon law contradict each others, such as those related to the reception of heretics in the Church and the validity of their sacraments. Since

    Most canons of the Eastern Orthodox canon law were issued as a response to some specific dogmatic or moral question, or to deviation, which happened in the History of the Eastern Orthodox Church; the very existence of those canons as well as their particular formulation is due to some specific controversies in History. The first canon of the Council of Chalcedon states it is imperative for the whole Eastern Orthodox Church to obey all previously formulated canons. Legislations taken from patrist

    The canons of the Eastern Orthodox canon law "were issued by the Ecumenical Councils, by regional councils, and by the Fathers of the Church." Those canons were collected and interpreted in The Rudder as well as in other collections of canons. The Rudder was written by St. Nicodemus and St. Agepius, and was first published in 1800. It was later adopted by Patriarch Neophytos VII of Constantinople and his Endemic synod as an official canon law collection. It is currently the most widely used cano

  4. Priesthood (Eastern Orthodox Church) Presbyter is, in the Bible, a synonym for bishop ( episkopos ), referring to a leader in local Church congregations. In modern Eastern Orthodox usage, it is distinct from bishop and synonymous with priest. Its literal meaning in Greek ( presbyteros) is "elder."

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