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  1. 30/04/2022 · 1555 (31st March) Elizabeth Cavendish, was born to Bess of Hardwick and William Cavendish at Chatsworth House, Derbyshire. She was the couple’s sixth child. 1556 (17th December) Elizabeth’s sister, Mary, was born to Bess of Hardwick and William Cavendish. 1557 (during) Elizabeth’s father, William Cavendish was accused of embezzling Crown funds.

  2. › wiki › Elizabeth_IIElizabeth II - Wikipedia

    Hace 15 horas · Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms. [b] Elizabeth was born in Mayfair , London , as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth ).

  3. 05/05/2022 · 伊丽莎白·克里斯蒂安娜·卡文迪什,德文郡公爵夫人(1758 年 5 月 13 日 - 1824 年 3 月 30 日)是一位英国贵族和书信作家。

    • Background
    • Writings
    • Early Years
    • Personal Life
    • Major Works
    • Plays in 1662 and 1668
    • Other Works
    • Critical Reception
    • Sources
    • Further Reading

    Born Margaret Lucas, she was the youngest sister of the royalists Sir John Lucas and Sir Charles Lucas, who owned the manor of St John's Abbey, Colchester. She became an attendant on Queen Henrietta Maria and travelled with her into exile in France, living for a time at the court of the young King Louis XIV. She became the second wife of William Ca...

    Cavendish, as a poet, philosopher, writer of prose romances, essayist and playwright, published under her own name at a time when most women writers remained anonymous. Her topics included gender, power, manners, scientific method and philosophy. Her utopian romance The Blazing World is one of the earliest examples of science fiction. She was unusu...


    Cavendish's father, Thomas Lucas, was exiled after a duel that led to the death of "one Mr. Brooks", but pardoned by King James. He returned to England in 1603. As the youngest of eight, Cavendish recorded spending a lot of time with her siblings. She had no formal education, but had access to libraries and tutors, although she hinted that the children paid little heed to tutors, who were "rather for formality than benefit". Cavendish began putting ideas down on paper at an early age, althoug...


    When Queen Henrietta Mariawas in Oxford, Cavendish gained permission from her mother to become a lady-in-waiting. She accompanied the Queen into exile in France, away from her family for the first time. She notes that while she was confident in the company of her siblings, amongst strangers she became bashful, being afraid she might speak or act inappropriately without her siblings' guidance, while anxious to be well received and well liked. She spoke only when necessary and so came to be reg...

    Marriage to the Marquess

    Cavendish noted that her husband liked her bashfulness; he was the only man she was ever in love with, not for his title, wealth or power, but for merit, justice, gratitude, duty and fidelity. She saw these as attributes that held people together even in misfortune, and in their case helped them to endure suffering for their political allegiance. Cavendish had no children, despite efforts by her physician to help her conceive. Her husband had five surviving children from a previous marriage,...

    Financial problems

    A few years after her marriage, she and her husband's brother, Sir Charles Cavendish, returned to England. Cavendish had heard that her husband's estate, sequestrated due to his being a royalist delinquent, would be sold and that she as his wife could hope to benefit from the sale. In the event she received no benefit. She noted that while many women petitioned for funds, she herself only did so once, and being denied decided such efforts were not worth the trouble. After a year and a half sh...

    Character and health

    Cavendish stated in A True Relation of My Birth, Breeding, and Life that her bashful nature, which she described as "melancholia", made her "repent my going from home to see the World abroad." It manifested itself in reluctance to discuss her work in public, but this she satirised in her writing.Cavendish defined and sought self-cures for the physical manifestations of her melancholia, which included "chill paleness", inability to speak, and erratic gestures.

    Religious beliefs

    Cavendish's views on God and religion remained ambiguous. Her writings show her as a Christian, but she did not often address the matter. In her Physical Opinions, she explicitly stated her belief in the existence of God – "Pray account me not an Atheist, but believe as I do in God Almighty,"– but sought to split philosophy from theology and so avoid debating God's actions in many of her philosophical works. Her theological temerity was unusual at a time when much women's writing was built ar...

    Poems and Fancies

    Poems and Fancies encompasses poems, epistles and some prose on topics that include natural philosophy, atoms, nature personified, macro/microcosms, other worlds, death, battle, hunting, love, honour and fame. Her poems at times take a dialogue form between such pairs as earth and darkness, an oak and a tree-cutter, melancholy and mirth, and peace and war. As noted by Mistress Toppe, formerly Elizabeth Chaplain and Cavendish's maid, Cavendish's writings took the form of poetical fiction, mora...

    Nature's Pictures drawn by Fancy's Pencil to the Life

    This is viewed as "Cavendish's most ambitious attempt to combine modes and genres."It includes short prose romances – "The Contract" and "Assaulted and Pursued Chastity" – and several prefatory addresses to the reader. The stories concern "the advantageous production of woman as spectacle" and "repeatedly [feminise] the aristocratic and chivalric trope (or figure) of the fair unknown."

    A True Relation of my Birth, Breeding, and Life

    Cavendish published this autobiographical memoir as an addendum to Natures Pictures Drawn by Fancies Pencil to the Life, in 1656. She wrote it at the age of 33, which has been discussed by literary critics. One critic sees Cavendish's autobiography as a way to gain credibility and a marketable image that would undercut a socially improper public image. Cavendish wrote her autobiography in response to what people were saying of her in her lifetime.It relates Cavendish's lineage, social status,...

    Two volumes of Cavendish's dramatic works were printed. Plays (1662), printed by A. Warren(London) includes: 1. Loves Adventures 2. The Several Wits 3. Youths Glory, and Deaths Banquet 4. The Lady Contemplation 5. Wits Cabal 6. The Unnatural Tragedy 7. The Public Wooing 8. The Matrimonial Trouble 9. Nature's Three Daughters, Beauty, Love and Wit 10...

    Cavendish also published collections of Philosophical Letters (1664), orations, as in her collection entitled Orations (1662). Many of her works address such issues as natural philosophy, gender, power and manners. Cavendish's plays were never acted in her lifetime, but a number, including The Convent of Pleasure (1668) have been staged since.Sever...

    Cavendish as a woman author willing to converse with men on natural philosophy and prone to a theatrical sense of dress, gained the nickname "Mad Madge", while many contemporaries lambasted her works for perceived eccentricity. Fellow scholar and Royal Society member Samuel Pepys once wrote of her as "a mad, conceited, ridiculous woman" after readi...

    Modern Editions of Works by Margaret Cavendish

    1. Bell in Campo and The Sociable Companions.Ed. Alexandra G. Bennett. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2002. 2. Grounds of Natural Philosophy.Ed. Anne Thell. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2020. 3. Margaret Cavendish: Essential Writings.Ed. David Cunning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. 4. Margaret Cavendish: Political Writings.Ed. Susan James. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 5. Observations upon Experimental Philosophy. Ed. Eileen O'Neill. New York: Cambridge UP, 2...


    1. Anna Battigelli, Margaret Cavendish and the Exiles of the Mind. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998 2. Deborah Boyle, The Well-Ordered Universe: The Philosophy of Margaret Cavendish. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018 3. Stephen Clucas, ed., A Princely Brave Woman: Essays on Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003 4. Line Cottegnies and Nancy Weitz, eds., Authorial Conquests: Essays on Genre in the Writings of Margaret Cavendish. Cranbury, NJ: Fair...


    1. N. N. W. Akkerman and M. Corporaal (2004), "Mad Science Beyond Flattery: The Correspondence of Margaret Cavendish and Constantijn Huygens", Early Modern Literary Studies 2. Justin Begley, "'The Minde is Matter Moved': Nehemiah Grew on Margaret Cavendish." Intellectual History Review27, No. 4 (May 2017): 493–514 3. Deborah Boyle, "Fame, Virtue, and Government: Margaret Cavendish on Ethics and Politics." Journal of the History of Ideas67, no. 2 (April 2006): 251–289. 4. Deborah Boyle, "Marga...

    Diana G. Barnes, "Epistolary Restoration: Margaret Cavendish's Letters". Epistolary Community in Print, 1580–1664. Surrey: Ashgate, 2013. 137–196
    Anna Battigelli, Margaret Cavendish and the Exiles of the Mind. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.
    Alexandra G. Bennett, "'Yes, and': Margaret Cavendish, the Passions and hermaphrodite Agency." Early Modern Englishwomen Testing Ideas. Ed. Jo Wallwork and Paul Salzman. Surrey: Ashgate, 2011. 75–88
    Rebecca D'Monte, "Mirroring Female Power: Separatist Spaces in the Plays of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle". Female Communities 1600–1800: Literary Visions and Cultural Realities. Ed. Reb...
    • Origins
    • Youth
    • Career
    • Boxing Pioneer
    • Residences
    • Marriage and Succession
    • Death and Succession

    Monck was the son and heir of George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle (1608–1670) by his wife Anne Clarges (d.1700), a daughter of John Clarges, "Farrier in the Savoy", of Drury Lane, Westminster. Anne's brother was Sir Thomas Clarges (c. 1618–1695), MP, who greatly assisted his brother-in-law, then before his elevation to the dukedom, General George M...

    Monck was educated privately and entered Gray's Inn in 1662. From 1660 until his father's death ten years later in 1670, he was known by the courtesy title of Earl of Torrington, one of his father's subsidiary titles.

    At the age of 13, Monck entered politics, having been elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Devon in January 1667. In 1670 he was elevated to the peerage and thus entered the House of Lords, following the death of his father, and thereby also inherited his father's peerage titles. He became a Gentleman of the Bedchamber and inherited his father's g...

    On 6 January 1681, Monck arranged a boxingmatch between his butler and his butcher. This was the first recorded boxing match in England. The butcher won the match.

    Potheridge, Devon

    His Devonshire seat was Potheridge, 3 miles south-east of Great Torrington, a grand mansion re-built by his father circa 1660 on the site of the former manor house occupied by his family since at the latest 1287. It was mostly demolished after the death of the 2nd duchess in 1734 and the surviving section forms the present Great Potheridge farmhouse, inside which however some remnants of the former mansion remain, including two massive 17th-century classical-style doorcases, a colossal overma...

    Clarendon House, London

    In 1675 Monck purchased for £26,000 the very grand London townhouse Clarendon House from the heirs of its builder, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (1609–1674). In 1683 he resold it to a consortium of investors led by Sir Thomas Bond, who demolished it and built on its site Albemarle Street, Bond Street and Dover Street.

    At the royal Palace of Whitehall in London on 30 December 1669, shortly before his father's death, Monck married Lady Elizabeth Cavendish (d.1734), eldest daughter and co-heiress of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle. She gave birth to a son who died soon after his birth, and Monck left no further surviving children. In 1692 his widow remarried...

    Monck died in Jamaica on 6 October 1688, age 35. He was buried in Westminster Abbey on 4 July 1689.As the Duke left no children, all his titles became extinct on his death.

  4. 21/04/2022 · Soon after christening the vessel Ark Raleigh in 1587, Queen Elizabeth ordered him to sell it to her for an amount of back taxes he owed the Crown. Effingham later sailed her during the sea battles against the Spanish Armada War. Sir Francis’ cousin Sir Thomas Cavendish

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