Duchy of Bavaria within the Holy Roman Empire, 1618. Status: Stem duchy and vassal of the Merovingians (the so-called older stem duchy) (c. 555–788) Direct rule under the Carolingians, as Kings of Bavaria (788–843)
In 1892, Ernest Louis succeeded his father as grand duke. Throughout his life, Ernest Louis was a patron of the arts, founding the Darmstadt Artists' Colony, and was himself an author of poems, plays, essays, and piano compositions. Ernest Louis commissioned the New Mausoleum in 1903.