This list contains all European emperors, kings and regent princes and their consorts as well as well-known crown princes since the Middle Ages, whereas the lists are starting with either the beginning of the monarchy or with a change of the dynasty (e.g. England with the Norman king William the Conqueror, Spain with the unification of Castile and Aragon, Sweden with the Vasa dynasty, etc.).
05/04/2022 · 1 born a Grand Duke, but stripped of his title by Alexander III's ukase of 1886, limiting the style to sons and male-line grandsons of a tsar; 2 title of pretence granted by Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich as claimant to the Russian throne; 3 title of pretence granted by Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich as claimant to the Russian throne
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