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  1. Grodno (en ruso, Гродно; en bielorruso, Гродна; en latín, Grodna, Grodnae; en lituano, Gardinas; en polaco, Grodno; en yidis, גראדנא ‎) es una ciudad subprovincial de Bielorrusia, capital de la provincia homónima en el oeste del país.

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › GrodnoGrodno - Wikipedia

    Grodno State University named after Yanka Kupala, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno State Agrarian University Grodno State Agrarian University - The information website for foreign students, Grodno Higher Theological Seminary Вышэйшая Духоўная Семінарыя ў Гродне, many colleges, 41 middleschools (or secondary schools).

    • 137 m (449 ft)
    • Belarus
  3. La provincia de Grodno (también Horadnia, Hrodna) (en bielorruso: Гро́дзенская во́бласць, Hródzenskaia vóblast; en ruso: Гро́дненская область, Gródnenskaia óblast) es una provincia de Bielorrusia, situada en la parte noroeste, en la frontera con Polonia y Lituania.

    • Towns and Cities in The Grodno Region
    • Transport Links in The Grodno Region
    • Industry in The Grodno Region
    • Agriculture in Grodno Region
    • Culture and Media in Grodno Region
    • Places to Visit in The Grodno Region

    Grodnois the main city in the region. There are a further 17 districts, 12 cities – of which 6 have their own regional administrations – and 21 towns.

    The Grodno region has a very good transport infrastructure. Majorinternational motorwaysbetween Europe and the CIS states run through the region. The main highways run to Minsk, Vilnius, Baranovichi and Brest. The Grodno region also has a goodrail network, with international lines to Poland and Lithuania. There is also a well-developed water transport network in the Grodno region, over the River Neman and the River Shchara.

    The chemical industry dominates production in the Grodno region, with large production facilities in Grodno and Lida. Other significant industries include: 1. food processing 2. machine building 3. metal working 4. production of building materials The main industrial area centres around Grodnocity, which is also home to the Grodnoinvest free economic zone.

    The agricultural sector is highly developed in the Grodno region. Cattle-breeding for the meat and dairy markets is important, as are pig-breeding and poultry farming. Cattle-breeding production accounts for 57.5% of all manufacturing. Arable farmingis also significant in the region. The main crops include: 1. grain 2. potatoes 3. flax 4. sugar beet 5. oilseed rape

    The Grodno region has a rich cultural heritage. Its many attractions include: 1. 3 major theatres 2. a philharmonic society 3. 19 museums 4. 2 music colleges Tens international, republic and regional festivals and competitions take place in the Grodno region annually. The most popular of them include the Republican Festival of National Cultures and the Mir Castle Regional Festival of Arts. The Grodno region’s many well-developed sports facilities include a national Neman Olympic training centre.

    Grodno is one of the most beautiful cities in Belarus, with castles and architectural monuments. The St. Uspensky Zhirovichi men`s monastery is one of the most important tourist and pilgrim destinations in Belarus. In one of the monastery temples the Zhirovichi Mother of God icon can be found. The region’s main attractions include: 1. St. Boris and Gleb’s Church(12th century) 2. Bernardine Roman-Catholic Church(16th-18th centuries) 3. Farny (Jesuit)Roman-Catholic Church 4. Lida and Novogrudok castles 5. Synkovichi fortress church(15th century) 6. Zhirovichi orthodox cloister(17th and 19th centuries) 7. Augustovski canal

    • Population Figures
    • Occupations
    • Rabbis and Authors
    • Communal Institutions
    • Labor and Socialist Movements
    • Zionism
    • Holocaust Period
    • After World War II
    • Bibliography

    In 1549, the Jewish population formed 17% of the total; in 1560 it numbered 1,000 according to one estimate, in 1764, 2,418 and in 1793, some 4,000. When Grodno passed to Russia with the third partition of Poland in 1795, the Jewish community was the largest in Lithuania after Vilna. The Jewish population numbered 8,422 in 1816 (85.3% of the total); approximately 10,300 in 1856–57 (63.3%); 27,343 in 1887 (68.7%); 27,874 in 1904 (64.1%); 34,461 in 1912 (c. 60%); 15,504 in 1916 (64.4%); 18,697 in 1921 (53.4%); and 21,159 in 1931 (42.6%). The decrease in the Jewish population during World War Iwas partly due to their expulsion to inner Russia by the Russian military authorities in 1915. The decrease relative to the general population after the war was due both to Jewish emigration from Grodno and to the official encouragement given to Poles to settle there after its conquest by the Poles in 1919.

    The principal traditional sources of income of Grodno Jews were commerce (principally in agricultural and timber products) and crafts, and more recently, industry. In 1887, 88% of commercial undertakings, 76% of factories and workshops, and 65.2% of real estate in Grodno were Jewish owned. The situation did not alter appreciably before World War I, but after Grodno's reversion to Poland the Jews were systematically ousted from their economic positions and from the middle of the 1930s a stringent anti-Jewish economic boycott was imposed. In 1921 there were 1,273 industrial enterprises and workshops in Jewish ownership, employing 3,719 persons (2,341 of them hired workers, of whom 83.2% were Jews), 34.6% for food processing (and tobacco), and 29% garment manufacturing. In the 1930s there were 938 Jewish artisans: 364 were tailors and 168 cobblers. Jewish doctors and lawyers constituted half the professional people in Grodno. In 1937 there were 65 Jewish-owned large or medium-sized fac...

    Among the notable rabbis serving in Grodno were Mordecai *Jaffe (16th century); Jonah b. Isaiah Te'omim, author of Kikayon de-Yonah (1630); Moses b. Abraham, author of Tiferetle-Moshe (1776); Joshua b. Joseph, author of Meginnei Shelomo (1715); Mordecai Suesskind of Rothenburg (17th century); and Simḥah b. Naḥman Rapoport of Dubno. The last to hold office was Benjamin Braudo (d. 1818). The dispute over the succession to the rabbinate after his death led to its abolition in Grodno and the appointment of morei hora'ah (decisors on law). The kabbalist and ethical pietist Alexander *Susskind , author of Yesod ve-Shoresh ha-Avodah and Ẓavva'ah, was a citizen of Grodno. Also renowned beyond Grodno in the 19thcentury was Nahum b. Uzziel – R. Noḥumke – a scholar who was famous for his devoted care of the poor.

    In the 19th century, the Grodno community supported numerous battei midrash and societies formed by the *Mitnaggedim for religious studies, which were attended regularly by people from all classes of the community. The famous scholar R. Shimon *Shkop headed the great "Sha'arei Hatorah" yeshivah in Grodno (1920–39). The Hebrew poet Abba Asher Constantin *Shapiro originated from Grodno. The Hebrew author Abraham Shalom *Friedberg and the Yiddish poet Leib Naidus lived there. The Jewish community made outstanding provision for benevolent and welfare institutions. From the 18thcentury there existed the society for care of the sick (Bikkur Ḥolim). Some wealthy members of the community contributed lavishly toward establishing orphanages, hospitals, old-age homes, and an excellent trade school. One of the first loan and savings cooperative funds in Russia was opened in 1900.

    A Jewish Socialist circle already existed in Grodno in 1875–76 where the first Jewish Socialists turned their attention to the working man. From the end of the 1890s the various trends of Jewish labor movements became increasingly active in Grodno, in particular in the tobacco factory. Central to the movement was the *Bund . The labor movements played an important part in organizing Jewish self-defense in Grodno in 1903 and 1907, and some Jewish youngsters there also avenged the bloodshed that resulted from the pogroms at *Bialystok . In the years between the two world wars the working movement fought for the rights of the Jewish worker to obtain employment and against anti-Jewish discrimination by the Polish government.

    A legal document of 1539 which deals with a Jewish couple who intended to leave Grodno for Jerusalem is almost a symbol of the strong roots later struck by the Ḥibbat Zion and Zionist movements in Grodno. Among Grodno Jews joining the early settlements in Ereẓ Israel in the 19th century was Fischel *Lapin , who settled in Jerusalem in 1863 and was a prominent communal worker. A society for settling in Ereẓ Israel was founded in Grodno in 1872, and a second acquired land in *Petaḥ Tikvah on its foundation in 1880, where a pioneer settler from Grodno was Mordecai *Diskin . The society of *Ḥovevei Zion in Grodno in 1890 gave generous support in building the Girls' Hebrew school in Jaffa. Grodno was one of the most active centers of Ḥovevei Zion, as also subsequently of the Zionist movement in Russia, in which the two brothers Bezalel and Leib *Jaffe were prominent. Zionist shekels were printed clandestinely in Grodno. Grodno remained one of the important centers of the Zionist movement...

    Under Polish rule there were pogroms in Grodno as early as 1935. A large-scale pogrom took place between Sept. 18 and 20, 1939, during the Polish army's withdrawal from the town prior to the entry of the Soviet Army. The Nazis occupied Grodno on June 22, 1941, the day on which Germany attacked the Soviet Union. On July 7, around 100 Jews in the professions were arrested and executed by the Nazi authorities. Jews were banned from public transportation, from places of entertainment, and from using the sidewalks. A Judenrat was organized and forced labor was imposed. While Jews were evicted from their apartments, German soldiers looted Jewish homes. On Nov. 1, 1941, the Jews of Grodno were segregated into two ghettos: one for "skilled workers" housed 15,000 in the small, overcrowded "synagogue quarter" (Shulhof) and the fish market; the other, which was smaller and reserved for the "unproductive," held 10,000 in the suburb of Slobodka. On Nov. 2, 1942, the ghettos were surrounded and s...

    Groups of Grodno Jewish partisans were active in forests. Some 2,000 Jews resettled in Grodno over a period of years following its liberation. By the 1960s Grodno had no synagogue. The "old" synagogue was a storehouse; the "new" one was used as a sports hall. In the mid-1950s the Jewish cemetery was plowed up. Tombstones were taken away and used for building a monument to Lenin. There are four mass graves of Jews near the city, on which monuments were erected after World War II. One of them was repeatedly desecrated and damaged and there were several cases of graves being similarly treated. In the 1990s the revived community started renovating the synagogue and in the early 2000s had a resident rabbi.

    Regesty, I–II; S.A. Friedenstein, Ir Gibborim (1880); Rabin, in: He-Avar (1957); Grodno, dzieje w zarysie (1936); Tenenbaum-Tamar of, Dappim min ha-Deleikah (1948); Yedi'ot Beit Loḥamei ha-Getta'ot (1957), no. 18–19, 53–62; H. Grosman, Ansheiha-Maḥteret (19652), 172–84; Grodner Opklangen, no. 1–18 (Buenos Aires, 1949–1968). Source: Dov Rabin, Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Things to Do in Grodno, Belarus: See Tripadvisor's 6,033 traveler reviews and photos of Grodno tourist attractions. Find what to do today, this weekend, or in January. We have reviews of the best places to see in Grodno. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions.

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