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  1. Gustavus Adolphus of the Palatinate (Prince Palatine Gustavus Adolphus; 14 January 1632 – 9 January 1641), was the last son of Frederick V, Elector Palatine (of the House of Wittelsbach), the "Winter King" of Bohemia, by his consort, the British princess Elizabeth Stuart.

    • Early Life & Kingship
    • Oxenstierna & Reforms
    • Marriage & Wars
    • The Thirty Years’ War
    • Conclusion

    Adolphus was born Gustav II Adolph on 9 December 1594, son of Duke Charles of the House of Vasa (later Charles IX of Sweden, r. 1604-1611) and his second wife Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (l. 1573-1625). The couple were married in 1592 and Adolphus was the eldest of four children. Charles’ first marriage, to Christina’s first cousin Maria of Palat...

    Oxenstierna guided the young king which, as scholar Peter H. Wilson notes, was not always easy: Oxenstierna provided the stability and counsel which enabled Adolphus to set about reforming the government and the military. He streamlined the bureaucracy of governmental offices, creating specific departments to handle the affairs of state such as the...

    Not all of these reforms were implemented in his first few years, however, as he was required to govern the state and, in keeping with tradition, find a woman among the European nobility as a wife. Suitable matches were limited to Protestant women, as Adolphus was Lutheran (though sometimes seems to have allowed people to think he was Calvinist) bu...

    The Polish-Swedish War was far from a resounding Swedish victory but the Truce of Altmark, concluding hostilities in 1629, favored the Swedes because Cardinal Richelieu of France (l. 1585-1642), who was part of the negotiations, needed Adolphus free to intercede in the Thirty Years’ War on the side of the Protestants. The Thirty Years’ War had begu...

    Adolphus’ widow, Maria, fell into deep grief on hearing of his death and locked herself and their daughter Christina in her bedchambers with the windows blackened. Once his corpse reached Sweden, she demanded the coffin be left open and visited him every day to weep by his side. When Oxenstierna finally ordered the king buried in 1634, he was force...

    • Joshua J. Mark
  2. Gustavus Adolphus (9 December [ N.S 19 December] 1594 – 6 November [ N.S 16 November] 1632), also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, [1] was King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, and is credited with the rise of Sweden as a great European power ( Swedish: Stormaktstiden ). During his reign, Sweden became one of the primary ...

  3. 7 de feb. de 2022 · Gustav Adolphus (1594 - 1632) is one of the most inspiring characters of the Reformation. The rapid rise to fame of Gustav Adolphus, the young King of Sweden, his military innovations and dramatic victories in battle turned the tide in The Thirty Years War and saved Protestant Germany from annihilation.

  4. hmn.wiki › es › Gustavus_Adolphus_of_the_PalatinateGustavo Adolfo del Palatinado

    Gustavus Adolphus of the Palatinate ( príncipe palatino Gustavus Adolphus ; 14 de enero de 1632 - 9 de enero de 1641), fue el último hijo de Federico V, elector palatino (de la casa de Wittelsbach ), el "Rey de invierno" de Bohemia , por su consorte, la princesa británica Isabel Estuardo . Gustavus nació en la República Holandesa , donde su familia había buscado refugio después del ...

  5. Tilly led his troops towards Nördlingen in the Upper Palatinate, while Pappenheim marched with his troops towards the Weser to ambush Gustavus Adolphus's reserve forces. [175] The Swedish victory at Breitenfeld sent shockwaves around Europe, since the German Protestant states won their first and greatest victory since the outbreak ...

  6. Sweden - Gustav II Adolf, Reformation, Scandinavia: Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus II Adolphus; ruled 1611–32) was only 16 years old when his father, Charles IX, died, so the actual leadership passed to the aristocrat Axel Oxenstierna and the council. The regency period lasted only a few months, however, before Gustav Adolf took full power. After the Kalmar War the king joined in organizing the ...