The government's inability to forestall Poland's economic decline led to waves of strikes across the country in April, May and August 1988. In an attempt to take control of the situation, the contemporary government gave de facto recognition to the Solidarity union, and Interior Minister Czesław Kiszczak began talks with Solidarity's leader Lech Wałęsa on August 31.
A History of Poland, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2004, ISBN 0-333-97254-6; Sanford, George. Historical Dictionary of Poland. Scarecrow Press, 2003. 291 pp. Wandycz, Piotr S. "Poland's Place in Europe in the Concepts of Piłsudski and Dmowski," East European Politics & Societies (1990) 4#3 pp 451–468. Wróbel, Piotr.
1989–present San Francisco, California, U.S. The name of a fundraising party held annually in San Francisco, California immediately following the Folsom Street Fair. Computer Space forum: 1989–present Bulgaria: International computer art festival in Sofia started as a festival for electronic music.