Originalmente, la parte oeste del Landgraviato de Turingia, en la mitad del siglo XIII fue heredada por el hijo menor de Enrique II y se convirtió en una distinta entidad política. Desde finales del siglo XVI la casa fue dividida en varias líneas, las más importantes fueron Hesse-Kassel y Hesse-Darmstadt.
Hesse-Kassel fue uno de los principales Estados alemanes aliados de Suecia durante la Guerra de los Treinta Años. El landgraviato era calvinista, y apoyó de manera importante la causa protestante, brindando ayuda militar al ejército sueco, pese a que su territorio fue ocupado por tropas imperiales durante la guerra.
Since 23 May 2013, the head of the house has been Donatus, Landgrave of Hesse. He descends from the Hesse-Kassel branch of the family, which has been the genealogically senior male line since the house's major partition in 1567. He is married to Countess Floria-Franziska of Faber-Castell. 
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel ( German: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel ), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, [a], also known as the Hessian Palatinate ( German: Hessischen Pfalz ),   was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. The state was created in 1567 when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided upon the death of ...
The House of Hesse-Kassel ( Hessen-Cassel) is a noble family of Germany, with a Swedish royal lineage. It was formed by a 16th century subdivision of the House of Hesse, that established the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel in 1567.
This is a list of monarchs of Hesse ( German: Hessen) during the history of Hesse on west-central Germany. These monarchs belonged to a dynasty collectively known as the House of Hesse and the House of Brabant,  originally the Reginar. Hesse was ruled as a landgraviate, electorate and later as a grand duchy until 1918.
The Electorate of Hesse (German: Kurfürstentum Hessen), also known as Hesse-Kassel or Kurhessen, was a landgraviate whose prince was given the right to elect the Emperor by Napoleon. When the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, its prince, William I , chose to retain the title of Elector , even though there was no longer an ...