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  1. 10 de ene. de 2023 · French General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan (1762-1833), marshal of the Empire under the reign of Napoleon I. Oil on canvas portrait initiated by Julie Volpelière but finished by Horace Vernet in 1834. Palace of Versailles. License & Copyright Based on Wikipedia content that has been reviewed, edited, and republished.

  2. 11 de ene. de 2023 · Command of the all-important Army of the North was then offered to the 31-year-old General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan (1762-1833), who had been recovering from a wound sustained at Hondschoote. The Committee chose Jourdan because he was a commoner who owed his career entirely to the Republic, having been only a private before the Revolution.

    • Retreat & Reform
    • The Coalition Fractures
    • Siege of Dunkirk
    • Houchard Takes Command
    • First Day: 6 September
    • Second Day: 8 September
    • Aftermath

    By the summer of 1793, the young French Republic seemed to be on its last legs. Its armies were stretched thinly across multiple fronts and were suffering setbacks on almost all of them. In the south, Spanish soldiers swarmed across the Pyrenees and dealt the French a series of defeats in Roussillon, while Sardinian troops amassed along the Alpine ...

    Coburg's inaction vexed the British government, which grew more impatient by the day. One of its war goals was the capture of Dunkirk, a port city on the English Channel that was valued both as a bargaining chip and as a strong base for British military operations on the continent. After the fall of Valenciennes, the administration of Prime Ministe...

    After this near-deathexperience, the Duke of York drove his men hard, marching them relentlessly through brutal summer heat. Finally, on 22 August, they arrived outside Dunkirk, with York setting up his personal headquarters at Furnes. He decided to divide his army in half: while York's troops besieged the city, Freytag's men formed a cordon almost...

    Jean-Nicolas Houchard would have been the first to admit that he had no business commanding an army. Described by historian Ramsay Weston Phipps as "brave but stupid ... a proved patriot" (209), Houchard had served in French armies since the age of 16; now 55, he had never commanded anything larger than a company until the previous few months, when...

    By 5 September, Houchard had positioned his army around the town of Cassel, facing Freytag's covering force centered around Hondschoote, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dunkirk. Made nervous by this concentration of French forces, Freytag sent two columns to take the town of Arneke, from where he could better observe French movements. The Hanoverians...

    7 September saw a lull in the fighting, as Houchard rested his tired troops and reassessed his position. Before him, 13,500 Hanoverians remained positioned in Hondschoote, faced with a French force almost three times their number. Houchard planned a three-pronged attack for the morning of 8 September; General Leclaire would attack the village from ...

    The Siege of Dunkirk and the Battle of Hondschoote proved one of the deadliest operations of the war so far. The Duke of York had lost roughly 3,000 men in the siege, mainly to disease, while the Hanoverians had lost 2,236 men at Hondschoote, bringing York's total loss over the course of the operation to somewhere around 5,000. The French also sust...

  3. 20 de ene. de 2023 · JOURDAN (JEAN-BAPTISTE, COMTE), député au Conseil des Cinq-cents, pair des Cent-jours, pair de France, né à Limoges (Haute-Vienne) le 29 avril 1762, mort à Paris le 23 novembre 1833, « fils de M. Roch Jourdan, maître chirurgien juré de Limoges, et de demoiselle Jeanne-Foreau-Franciquet, son épouse, » fut d'abord commis en soieries chez un de ses oncles; puis il s'engagea en 1778, et rejoignit à l'île de Ré le régiment d'Auxerrois qui allait partir pour l'Amérique.

  4. 19 de ene. de 2023 · by Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse published on 19 January 2023 Download Full Size Image The Battle of Fleurus, 26 June 1794. A French army achieved victory over the Austrians, turning the tide of the War of the First Coalition decisively in France's favor. Depicted on the white horse in General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan who commanded the French forces.

  5. 7 de ene. de 2023 · He reformed Austria's armies to adopt the nation at arms principle; in 1809, he went into the War of the Fifth Coalition with confidence and inflicted Napoleon's first major setback at Aspern-Essling, before suffering a defeat at the bloody Battle of Wagram. Following Wagram, Charles saw no more significant action in the Napoleonic Wars.

  6. 1 de ene. de 2023 · J.-B. Say, in full Jean-Baptiste Say, (born January 5, 1767, Lyon, France—died November 15, 1832, Paris), French economist, best known for his law of markets, which postulates that supply creates its own demand. After completing his education, Say worked briefly for an insurance company and then as a journalist.