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  1. Stephen, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken. Mother. Anna of Veldenz. Louis I of Zweibrücken ( German: Pfalzgraf Ludwig I. von Pfalz-Zweibrücken "der Schwarze"; 1424 – 19 July 1489) was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken and Count of Veldenz from 1444 until his death in 1489.

    • 1424
    • 19 July 1489 (aged 64–65), Simmern
  2. Luis I de Dos Puentes. Luis I de Zweibrücken (en alemán: Pfalzgraf Ludwig I. von Pfalz-Zweibrücken "der Schwarze"; 1424 - 19 de julio de 1489) fue Conde Palatino y Duque de Zweibrücken y de Veldenz desde 1444 hasta su muerte en 1489.

    • 1424
    • 19 de julio de 1489, Simmern
  3. Louis I of Zweibrücken (German: Pfalzgraf Ludwig I. von Pfalz-Zweibrücken "der Schwarze"; 1424 – 19 July 1489) was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken and Count of Veldenz from 1444 until his death in 1489.

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    Palatine Zweibrücken was established as a separate principality in 1459, when Stephen, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken divided his territory, Palatinate-Simmern and Zweibrücken, between his two sons. The younger son, Louis I, received the County of Zweibrücken and the County of Veldenz. Palatine Zweibrücken ceased to exist in 1797 when it was...

    The County Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken had been created in 1410 for Stephen, the third surviving son of prince-elector King Rupert. In 1444, Stephen inherited the County of Veldenz from his father-in-law, Frederick III, Count of Veldenz. In 1444, Stephen decided to divide his possessions between his sons, Frederick I and Louis I. When Stephen a...

    When Palatine Zweibrücken was created in 1444, it consisted of the districts of Armsheim, Landsburg, Lauterecken, Burg Lichtenberg, Meisenheim and Veldenz from the County of Veldenz. In 1459, the districts Falkenburg Castle, Guttenberg, Haßloch, Kirkel, Lambsheim, Oggersheim, Wachenheim, Wegelnburg and Zweibrückenfrom Palatine Simmern were added.

    15th century

    During the reign of Louis I, who conducted four unsuccessful feuds against his cousin Frederick I, Elector Palatine, the districts of Lambsheim, Wachenheim and Waldböckelheim were lost to the Electoral Palatinate. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, who was also in conflict with the Electoral Palatinate, appointed Louis I as his field marshal and recognized Palatine Zweibrücken as a duchy. Louis I stimulated mining and simplified the administration of the duchy. Initially, Meisenheim was the c...

    16th century

    After Louis' death, the duchy was not divided. His testament required dukes Alexander and Kaspar to rule the duchy jointly. However, Alexander declared his older brother mentally ill, locked him up and ruled the duchy alone. Alexander also waged war on the Electoral Palatinate; his troops looted the Palatinate during the Landshut War of Succession. In 1505, when the war ended with an imperial decision, some territory was transferred from the Electoral Palatinate to Palatine Zweibrücken. Alexa...

    17th century

    During the Thirty Years' War, the duchy was occupied by imperial forces and Count Palatine John II of Zweibrücken had to flee to Metz. His son and successor Frederick returned in 1645. When Frederick died without a male heir in 1661, he was succeeded by his cousin Frederick Louis. During his reign, the land was occupied by France in 1676. Zweibrücken was a fief of the Bishopric of Metz, which had been annexed by France. In 1680, France, therefore, annexed Zweibrücken as well. In 1681, Frederi...

    In the duchy, there was no authority that would have limited the power of the Duke. Even the urban population were legally serfs until that status was repealed by John Ion 21 April 1571 (although the situation in the city of Zweibrücken had already been somewhat eased by decrees from the years 1352 and 1483). Young men were required to serve six ye...

    In the 1520s, Reformation was introduced in several towns in Palatine Zweibrücken, including Zweibrücken itself, where Johann Schwebel was the duke's chaplain and later parson. Schwebel was also a leading figure when several pastors of the duchy signed the Wittenberg Concord and when the first attempts were made to form a uniform territorial church...

    Around 1720, Palatinate-Zweibrücken added the symbols of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg to its coat of arms. It was parted per pale. The dexter side was quartered, in the first and fourth quarter the Palatine Lion, in second and third the Bavarian silver and blue "bendy lozengy" pattern, and overall a silver shield with a crowned blue lio...

    • Principality
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  4. Louis I of Zweibrücken was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken and Count of Veldenz from 1444 until his death in 1489.