Early life. Louis was born at the Prinz-Karl-Palais in Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine in the German Confederation, the first son and child of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine (23 April 1809 – 20 March 1877) and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia (18 June 1815 – 21 March 1885), granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
Grand Duke of Hesse. In 1892, Ernest Louis succeeded his father as grand duke. Throughout his life, Ernest Louis was a patron of the arts, founding the Darmstadt Artists' Colony, and was himself an author of poems, plays, essays, and piano compositions. Ernest Louis commissioned the New Mausoleum in 1903.
Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine: 18. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (= 30) 9. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken (= 15) 19. Countess Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken (= 31) 2. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine: 20. Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (= 16, 26, 28) 10. Prince George William of Hesse ...
Louis's son and heir, the future Emperor Napoleon III, on the other hand, was at that time being imprisoned in France for having attempted a Bonapartist coup d'état. Louis Bonaparte died on 25 July 1846 in Livorno , and his remains were buried at Saint-Leu-la-Forêt , Île-de-France .
Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of France (as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte) from 1848 to 1852 and the last monarch of France as Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. A nephew of Napoleon I, he was the last monarch to rule over France.
Soldier. After serving with Frederick the Great during the Seven Years' War, he took up residence in 1769 at his family's exclave, the County of Montbéliard, of which he was also made lieutenant-general in March 1786 by his eldest brother, Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, who had begun to come into the inheritance of portions of the County of Limpurg in the 1780s.
Louis Philippe (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848, and the penultimate monarch of France.. As Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, he distinguished himself commanding troops during the Revolutionary Wars and was promoted to lieutenant general by the age of nineteen, but he broke with the Republic over its decision to execute King Louis XVI.