Louis IV (German: Ludwig IV; 12 September 1837 – 13 March 1892) was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 13 June 1877 until his death in 1892. Through his marriage to Queen Victoria's second daughter Alice, he was connected to the British royal family.
Ludwig IV. erlag am 13. März 1892 einem Schlaganfall.  1910 wurden seine sterblichen Überreste in das kurz zuvor vollendete Neue Mausoleum der großherzoglichen Familie im Park Rosenhöhe in Darmstadt überführt.
Ludwig I or Louis I (German: Ludwig I.; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was King of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states. When he was crown prince, he was involved in the Napoleonic Wars. As king, he encouraged Bavaria's industrialization, initiating the Ludwig Canal between the rivers Main and the Danube.
Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria: 12. Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken: 6. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria: 13. Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach: 3. Princess Sophie of Bavaria: 14. Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden: 7. Princess Caroline of Baden: 15. Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
As the eldest surviving brother of the Emperor, Karl Ludwig, after the death of his nephew Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria in 1889, became heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A newspaper article appeared shortly after the death of his nephew claiming that the Archduke had renounced his succession rights in favor of his eldest son Franz Ferdinand . 
Ludwig's interest in theater was by no means confined to Wagner. In 1867, he appointed Karl von Perfall as director of his new court theater. Ludwig wished to introduce Munich theater-goers to the best of European drama. Perfall, under Ludwig's supervision, introduced them to Shakespeare, Calderón, Mozart, Gluck, Ibsen, Weber, and many others.
William I or Wilhelm I (German: Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig; 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888) was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and German Emperor from 18 January 1871 until his death in 1888. A member of the House of Hohenzollern , he was the first head of state of a united Germany.