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  1. María Leopoldina de Austria, también conocida en Brasil como Leopoldina o María Leopoldina, fue una archiduquesa de Austria, regente del Reino de Brasil, primera emperatriz consorte de Brasil y durante poco más de dos meses en 1826, reina de Portugal. Fue muy querida por los brasileños, quienes dolorosamente lloraron su prematura muerte. Su decisivo apoyo a la causa de la independencia brasileña, le valió el apodo de "La Paladina de la Independencia".

  2. María Leopoldina de Habsburgo, también conocida como María Leopoldina de Austria-Tirol, fue una noble alemana, la segunda esposa de Fernando III de Habsburgo y por lo tanto emperatriz del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico. Murió mientras daba a luz al único hijo de la pareja, el archiduque Carlos José de Austria.

    • Primeros años
    • Matrimonios
    • Muerte
    • Personalidad
    • Referencias
    • Bibliografía

    María Leopoldina nació en Milán, el 10 de diciembre de 1776. Era la tercera hija del archiduque Fernando Carlos de Austria y de la duquesa María Beatriz de Este.

    Primer matrimonio

    En agosto de 1795, María Leopoldina fue obligada a casarse con Carlos Teodoro del Palatinado y Baviera, quien era 52 años mayor que ella. El matrimonio fue arreglado con la esperanza de que daría un hijo y heredero de la línea principal a la Casa de Wittelsbach, pero María Leopoldina rechazó todo contacto físico con su marido, le humilló en público, y comenzó a tener amantes, entre ellos Maximiliano I de Baviera y Maximiliano von Montgelas. Ella se eligió a sí misma para formar una alianza co...

    Segundo matrimonio

    El 14 de noviembre de 1804, María Leopoldina casó en Múnich con el conde Luis de Arco. Tuvieron tres hijos: 1. Luis Nicolás Ambrosio de Arco-Stepperg (6 de diciembre de 1808 - 10 de septiembre de 1891), casado en 1830 con la margravina Irene Pallavicini, sin descendencia, se casó nuevamente en 1877 con Paulina Oswald, tuvieron una hija. 2. Maximiliano José Bernardo de Arco-Zinneberg (13 de diciembre de 1811 - 13 de noviembre de 1885), casado en 1833 con la condesa Leopoldina de Waldburg-Zeil...

    En 1848, María Leopoldina viajaba en carruaje desde Múnich a Viena. Su carruaje volcó cerca de Wasserburg am Inn y murió aplastada. Dejó una fortuna de 15 millones de florinesa sus dos hijos.

    María Leopoldina ya era considerada una destacada personalidad entre sus contemporáneos. Durante el resto de su vida fue venerada por los bavaros y la familia Wittelsbach, por permitir su ascenso al trono, de hecho se le agradeció oficialmente en 1845 con un reconocimiento. Ella misma demostró ser un ser así, una cosmopolita de mente aguda y amplio...

    Krauss-Meyl, Sylvia. Das "Enfant terrible" des Königshauses: Maria Leopoldine, Bayerns letzte Kurfürstin (1776-1848). Regensburg: Pustet, 1997. ISBN 3-7917-1558-5.

    Krauss-Meyl, Sylvia: Das "Enfant terrible" des Königshauses: Maria Leopoldine, Bayerns letzte Kurfürstin (1776-1848). Regensburg: Pustet, 1997. ISBN 3-7917-1558-5.
    Karl Otmar Freiherr von Aretin (1990). «Maria Leopoldine, Erzherzogin von Österreich». Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (en alemán) 16. Berlín: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 182-183; (texto completo en línea)
    Wolfgang Kunz: Maria Leopoldine (1776–1848) – Kurfürstin von Pfalz-Bayern und Geschäftsfrau. in: Mannheimer Geschichtsblätter. Neue Folge vol. 3, 1995, ISSN 0948-2784, pp. 255–274.
    Friedrich Weissensteiner: Habsburgerinnen auf fremden Thronen. Ueberreuter, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-8000-3761-0.
    • Early Years
    • Negotiations and Marriage
    • from Austria to The New World and The Scientific Mission
    • Regent and Empress of Brazil
    • Decline in Health and Death
    • Legacy
    • Depictions in Culture
    • Titles and Honours
    • Children
    • References

    Birth and parentage

    Maria Leopoldina was born on 22 January 1797 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Archduchy of Austria. She was the sixth (but third surviving) child of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (who from 1804, became in Emperor of Austria with the title of Francis I, because Napoleon Bonaparte demanded that he renounce the title of Holy Roman Emperor when he was crowned Emperor of the French) but the fifth (third surviving) child and fourth (second surviving) daughter born from his second marriage with Mar...

    Education

    On 13 April 1807, the 10-year-old Archduchess lost her mother after she suffered complications due to childbirth. A year later (6 January 1808), her father remarried to the woman Maria Leopoldina would later describe as the most important person in her life, Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este. First-cousin of her husband and granddaughter of Empress Maria Theresa, the new Empress was well-educated and surpassed her predecessor in culture and intellectual brilliance. Muse and personal friend of th...

    For centuries, royal marriages in Europe served primarily as political alliances. Through marriage, the geopolitical cartography of the European continent was shaped by a complex web of shared interests and solidarity between royal houses. The marriage between Maria Leopoldina and Dom Pedro de Alcântara, Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portug...

    The crossing of the Atlantic

    Maria Leopoldina's trip to Brazil was difficult and time-consuming. The Archduchess left Vienna for Florence on 2 June 1817, where she awaited further instructions from the Portuguese court, since monarchical authority remained tenuous in Brazil since the Pernambucan revolt. On 13 August 1817, Maria Leopoldina was finally allowed to embark on her journey from Livorno, Italy, on the Portuguese fleet composed of the ships D. João VI and São Sebastião. With her luggage and a large entourage, she...

    Austrian Scientific Mission

    Brazil had the privilege of being portrayed and studied by European artists and scientists of the first order long before other American countries. Still in the 17th century, in the context of the Dutch occupation of northeastern Brazil, Prince John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen brought to Brazil a significant group of collaborators, among which we can mention Willem Piso, a doctor who came to study tropical diseases; Frans Post, famous painter, then in his early twenties; Albert Eckhout, also a p...

    Background of the Independence

    The year 1821 was decisive in Maria Leopoldina's life. Belonging to one of the most conservative and enduring families in Europe (the House of Habsburg-Lorraine) she came from a careful education based on the molds of the absolutist monarchies of the time. In June 1821, a frightened Maria Leopoldina wrote to her father "My husband, God help us, loves the new ideas", suspicious of the new constitutional and liberal political values; she personally witnessed the events that took place in Europe...

    The conspirator of São Cristóvão

    Maria Leopoldina grew up fearing popular revolutions due to the example of her great-aunt Marie Antoinette, the last Queen of France, guillotined during the French Revolution.However, the fear of revolutions that would diminish the powers of the monarchs by popular revolt as happened in France in 1789 and recently in Portugal in 1820 was not seen in Brazil: "As soon as the autonomist movement and then the independence movement won Dom Pedro and Dona Leopoldina as protagonists, the Brazilians...

    Regency

    When her husband traveled to São Paulo in August 1822 to pacify politics (which culminated in the proclamation of Brazil's Independence in September), Maria Leopoldina was appointed as his official representative, that is, as Regent in his absence. Her status was confirmed with a document of investiture dated 13 August 1822 in which Dom Pedro appointing her head of the Council of State and Acting Princess-Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil, giving her complete authority to take any necessary pol...

    Popular commotion

    King John VI of Portugal died on 10 March 1826; Dom Pedro in consequence inherited the Portuguese throne as King Pedro IV, while remaining Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. Maria Leopoldina thus became both Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal. However, aware that a reunion of Brazil and Portugal would be unacceptable to the people of both nations, less than two months later, on 2 May, Dom Pedro hastily abdicated the crown of Portugal in favor of their eldest daughter Maria da Gló...

    Cause of death

    There are disagreements about the real cause of death of the first Empress of Brazil. For some authors, Maria Leopoldina would have died as a result of puerperal sepsis, while the Emperor was in Rio Grande do Sul, where he had inspected the troops during the Cisplatine War. The version that Maria Leopoldina died as a result of the attacks on her during a tantrum of her husband, is a widespread theory corroborated by historians such as Gabriac, Carl Seidler, John Armitage and Isabel Lustosa. T...

    Reactions

    During Maria Leopoldina's agony, the most diverse rumors arose: that the Empress was a prisoner at the Quinta da Boa Vista, that she was being poisoned by her doctor at the behest of the Marchioness of Santos, among others. Domitila de Castro's popularity, which was no longer the best, worsened, with her house in São Cristóvão being stoned and her brother-in-law, a buttler of the Empress, received two shots.The Marchioness' right to preside over medical appointments of the Empress, as her lad...

    Although she is portrayed as a melancholic woman and humiliated by the scandals and extramarital relations of Dom Pedro I (representing her as the fragile link in the love triangle), the most recent historiography has claimed to Maria Leopoldina a less passive image in national history. Maria Leopoldina had great prominence in Brazilian politics, e...

    Empress Maria Leopoldina has already been portrayed as a character in cinema and television, being played by Kate Hansen in the film Independência ou Morte (1972), by Maria Padilha in the miniseries Marquesa de Santos (1984) and by Érika Evantini in the miniseries O Quinto dos Infernos(2002). Maria Leopoldina's life was also the subject of the 1996...

    Titles

    1. 22 January 1797 – 11 August 1804 Her Royal HighnessArchduchess Leopoldina of Austria 2. 11 August 1804 – 6 November 1817 Her Imperial and Royal HighnessArchduchess and Princess Imperial Leopoldina of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia 3. 6 November 1817 – 12 October 1822 Her Imperial and Royal HighnessThe Princess Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Duchess of Braganza, Archduchess and Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Boh...

    Honours

    1. United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves: 1.1. Dame Grand Mistress of the Order of Saint Isabel 1.2. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa 2. Empire of Brazil: 2.1. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Pedro I 2.2. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross 3. Austrian Empire: Dame of the Order of the Starry Cross 4. Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa 5. Kingdom of Bavaria: Dame of the Order of Saint Elizabeth

    By June 1818 Maria Leopoldina became pregnant, and her first child, Maria da Glória, was born after a difficult delivery on 4 April 1819. Her next pregnancy ended in a miscarriage in November 1819, and on 26 April 1820 she suffered her second miscarriage; the child, a son, was named Miguel in honor of his paternal uncle and died almost immediately....

    Oberacker, Carlos H. (1988). Leopoldine: Habsburgs Kaiserin von Brasilien (in German). Vienna/Munich: Amalthea. ISBN 3-85002-265-X.
    Barman, Roderick J. (1988). Brazil: The Forging of a Nation, 1798–1852. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1437-2.
    Barman, Roderick J. (1999). Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
    Branco, João Carlos Feo Cardoso de Castello (1838). Resenha das familias titulares do reino de Portugal: Acompanhada das notícias biográphicas de alguns indivíduos da mesmas famílias(in Portuguese)...
  3. María Leopoldina de Austria: una Habsburgo como heroína nacional brasileña. La corta vida de Maria Leopoldine, o Leopoldine para abreviar, iba a durar sólo 29 años. 29 años, que la hija de Francisco II. (I) y su segunda esposa, María Teresa de Nápoles-Sicilia, supo llenar con su propia inteligencia prospectiva y sus vivos intereses intelectuales.

  4. María Leopoldina de Austria, ( Palacio de Schönbrunn, Viena, Austria, 22 de enero de 1797 - Palacio de São Cristovão, Río de Janeiro, Brasil, 11 de diciembre de 1826) fue la primera emperatriz consorte del Brasil entre 1822 y 1826. Antes de haber sido emperatriz consorte, había ocupado los títulos de archiduquesa de Austria, regente del reino de ...

  5. María Leopoldina de Habsburgo-Lorena ou de Austria (en portugués Carolina Josefa Leopoldina Fancisca Fernanda de Habsburgo-Lorena, en alemán Caroline Josepha Leopoldine Franziska Ferdinanda von Habsburg-Lothringen), [1] [2] [3] [4] nada en Viena o 22 de xaneiro de 1797 e finada o 11 de decembro de 1826 en Río de Xaneiro, foi filla de Francisco I de Austria, emperador do Sacro Imperio Xermánico e despois de Austria, e da súa esposa María Teresa de Borbón-Dúas Sicilias.