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  1. Philipp Konrad, conte zu Dietz (29 septembrie 1547 – 25 mai 1569), Moritz, conte zu Dietz (8 iunie 1553 – 23 ianuarie 1575). Ernst, conte zu Dietz (12 august 1554 – 1570). Anna, a murit în copilărie în 1558.

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  3. Albrecht, Count zu Dietz (10 March 1546 – 3 October 1569). Philipp Konrad, Count zu Dietz (29 September 1547 – 25 May 1569), Moritz, Count zu Dietz (8 June 1553 – 23 January 1575). Ernst, Count zu Dietz (12 August 1554 – 1570). Anna, died young in 1558.

  4. Philipp Konrad, Graf (Earl) von Hessen-Kassel zu Dietz ‎ was born on month day 1546, at birth place, to Philipp I, Landgraf "The Magnanimous" Hesse-Kassel (born Hessen-Brabant), Landgrave of Hesse and Margarethe, Landgräfin von Hessen-Kassel-Brabant-Lothringen (born Von der Saale).

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    • Early Life and Embracing of Protestantism
    • Introduction of The Reformation in Hesse
    • Suspected of Zwinglianism
    • Leader of The Schmalkaldic League
    • Bigamous Marriage
    • Overtures to The Emperor
    • Resumption of Hostility to Charles
    • Imprisonment of Philip and Interim in Hesse
    • Closing Years
    • Marriage and Children

    Philip was the son of Landgrave William II of Hesse and his second wife Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His father died when Philip was five years old, and in 1514 his mother, after a series of struggles with the Estates of Hesse, succeeded in becoming regenton his behalf. The struggles over authority still continued, however. To put an end to them, Philip was declared of age in 1518, his actual assumption of power beginning the following year. The power of the Estates had been broken by his mother, but he owed her little else. His education had been very imperfect, and his moral and religious training had been neglected. Despite all this, he developed rapidly as a statesman, and soon began to take steps to increase his personal authority as a ruler. The first meeting of Philip of Hesse with Martin Luther took place in 1521, at the age of 17, at the Diet of Worms. There he was attracted by Luther's personality, though he had at first little interest in the religious elements of the ga...

    Although there was no strong popular movement for Protestantism in Hesse, Philip determined to organize the church there according to Protestant principles. In this he was aided not only by his chancellor, the humanist Johann Feige, and his chaplain, Adam Krafft, but also by the ex-Franciscan François Lambert of Avignon, a staunch enemy of the faith he had left. While the radical policy of Lambert, embodied in the Homberg church order, was abandoned, at least in part, the monasteries and religious foundations were dissolved and their property was applied to charitable and scholastic purposes. The University of Marburg was founded in the summer of 1527 to be, like the University of Wittenberg, a school for Protestant theologians. Philip's father-in-law George, Duke of Saxony, the bishop of Würzburg, Konrad II von Thungen, and the archbishop of Mainz, Albert III of Brandenburg, were active in agitating against the growth of the Reformation. Their activities, along with other circumsta...

    Philip was especially anxious to prevent division over the subject of the Eucharist. Through him Huldrych Zwingli was invited to Germany, and Philip thus prepared the way for of the celebrated Marburg Colloquy. Although the attitude of the Wittenberg theologians frustrated his attempts to bring about harmonious relations, and although the situation was further complicated by the position of Georg, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, who demanded a uniform confession and a uniform church order, Philip held that the differences between the followers of Martin Bucer and the followers of Luther in their sacramental theories admitted honest disagreement, and that Holy Scripturecould not resolve the differences definitively. The result was that Philip was suspected of a tendency toward Zwinglianism. His sympathy for the Reformers associated with Zwingli in Switzerland and Bucer in Strasburg was intensified by the anger of the emperor at receiving from Philip a statement of Protestant tenets...

    The German prince’s Evangelical interpretation of, “cuius regio, eius religio” ("Whose realm, his religion" ) at the Diet of Speyer in 1526, gave the Landgrave authority to garner enough political support to start a war effort, or at least a defensive effort. This effort resulted in the foundation of: the League of Gotha, then the League of Torgau, and finally the Schmalkaldic League. The Holy Roman Empire’s elector John of Saxony, Philip’s most powerful ally, agreed to, “oppose the terms of the Edict of Worms [(1521)], which outlawed Martin Luther and demanded his punishment as a heretic”.The Schmalkaldic League assumed the role as the protectors of Protestant lands, the members of which were formally recognized in the First Agreement of the Schmalkaldic League in 1531. In 1531 Philip was successful in accomplishing the purpose for which he had so long worked by securing the adhesion of the Protestant powers to the Schmalkaldic League, which was to protect their religious and secul...

    Within a few weeks of his 1523 marriage to the unattractive and sickly Christine of Saxony, who was also alleged to be an immoderate drinker, Philip committed adultery; and as early as 1526 he began to consider the permissibility of bigamy. According to Martin Luther, he lived "constantly in a state of adultery and fornication." Philip accordingly wrote Luther for his opinion about the matter, alleging as a precedent the polygamy of the patriarchs, but Luther replied that it was not enough for a Christian to consider the acts of the patriarchs, rather that he, like the patriarchs, must have special divine sanction. Since such sanction was clearly lacking in this case, Luther advised against bigamous marriage, especially for Christians, unless there was extreme necessity, as, for example, if the wife was leprous, or abnormal in other respects. Despite this discouragement, Philip gave up neither his project to secure a bigamous marriage nor his life of sensuality, which kept him for y...

    This event had affected the entire political situation in Germany. Even while the marriage question was occupying his attention, Philip was engaged in constructing far-reaching plans for reforming the Church and for drawing together all the opponents of the House of Habsburg, though at the same time he did not give up hopes of reaching a religious compromise through diplomatic means. He was bitterly disgusted by the criticism directed against him, and feared that the law which he himself had enacted against adultery might be applied to his own case. In this state of mind he was now determined to make his peace with the Emperor on terms which would not involve desertion of the Protestant cause. He offered to observe neutrality regarding the imperial acquisition of the Duchy of Clevesand to prevent a French alliance, on condition that the emperor would pardon him for all his opposition and violation of the imperial laws, though without direct mention of his bigamy. The advances of Phi...

    The situation was suddenly changed, however, and Philip was tardily forced again into the opposition against the Emperor, by the Treaty of Crépy of 1544, which opened his eyes to the danger threatening Protestantism. He prevented the Roman Catholic Duke Henry V of Brunswick-Lüneburg from taking forcible possession of his dominions and unsuccessfully planned a new alliance with German princes against Austria, pledging its members to prevent the acceptance of the decrees of the projected Council of Trent. When this failed, he sought to secure the neutrality of Bavariain a possible war against the Protestants and proposed a new Protestant alliance to take the place of the Schmalkaldic League. But all of this, like his projected coalition with the Swiss, was prevented from succeeding by the jealousy prevailing between Duke Maurice of Saxony and the Elector John Frederick I of Saxony. Fearful of the success of these plans, the emperor invited Philip to an interview at Speyer. Philip spok...

    The imprisonment of Philip brought the Church in Hesse into great trials and difficulties. It had previously been organized carefully by Philip and Bucer, and synods, presbyteries, and a system of discipline had been established. The country was thoroughly Protestantized, though public worship still showed no uniformity, discipline was not strictly applied, and many sectaries existed. The Augsburg Interimwas now introduced, sanctioning Roman Catholic practises and usages. Philip himself wrote from prison to forward the acceptance of the Augsburg Interim, especially as his liberty depended upon it. As long as the unrestricted preaching of the Gospel and the Protestant tenet of justification by faith were secured, other matters seemed to him of subordinate importance. He read Roman Catholic controversial literature, attended mass, and was much impressed by his study of the Fathers of the Church. The Hessian clergy, however, boldly opposed the introduction of the Interim and the govern...

    Though Philip was now active in restoring order within his territories, new leaders—such as Maurice of Saxony and Christopher of Württemberg—had come to the fore. Philip no longer desired to assume the leadership of the Protestant party. All his energies were now directed toward finding a basis of agreement between Protestants and Roman Catholics. At his direction his theologians were prominent in the various conferences where representative Roman Catholics and Protestants assembled to attempt to find a working basis for reunion. Philip was also much disturbed by the internal conflicts that arose after Luther's death between his followers and the disciples of Melanchthon. He never wearied in urging the necessity of mutual toleration between Calvinists and Lutherans, and to the last cherished the hope of a great Protestant federation, so that, with this end in view, he cultivated friendly relations with French Protestants and with Elizabeth I of England. Financial aid was given to th...

    Philip married in Dresden on 11 December 1523 Christine of Saxony (daughter of George, Duke of Saxony) and had in this marriage 10 children: 1. Agnes (31 May 1527 – 4 November 1555), married: 1.1. in Marburg on 9 January 1541 to Elector Maurice of Saxony; 1.2. in Weimar on 26 May 1555 to Duke John Frederick II, Duke of Saxony. 2. Anna (26 October 1529 – 10 July 1591), married on 24 February 1544 to Count palatine Wolfgang of Zweibrücken. 3. William IV of Hesse-Kassel(or Hesse-Cassel) (24 June 1532 – 25 August 1592). 4. Philip Louis, died young in 1535. 5. Barbara of Hesse (8 April 1536 – 8 June 1597), married: 5.1. in Reichenweier on 10 September 1555 to George I, Duke of Württemberg; 5.2. in Kassel on 11 November 1568 to Count Daniel of Waldeck. 6. Louis IV of Hesse-Marburg(27 May 1537 – 9 October 1604). 7. Elisabeth (13 February 1539 – 14 March 1582), married on 8 July 1560 to Louis VI, Elector Palatine. 8. Philip II of Hesse-Rheinfels(22 April 1541 – 20 November 1583). 9. Christi...

  6. Margretha, Countess zu Dietz (14 October 1544–1608), married: in Kassel on 3 October 1567 to Count Hans Bernhard of Eberstein; in Frauenberg on 10 August 1577 to Count Stephan Heinrich of Everstein. Albrecht, Count zu Dietz (10 March 1546 – 3 October 1569). Philipp Konrad, Count zu Dietz (29 September 1547 – 25 May 1569),

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