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  1. 25 de agosto de 1330 jul. Sir James Douglas, también conocido como Good Sir James y Black Douglas (1286 - 25 de agosto de 1330 ), fue un señor que luchó en las Guerras de independencia de Escocia.

    • Family Background
    • Education
    • with The North West Company
    • with The Hudson’s Bay Company
    • Governor of Vancouver Island
    • Douglas Treaties
    • Fraser River Gold Rush
    • Fraser Canyon War
    • Governor of British Columbia
    • Retirement in 1864

    James Douglas was the son of John Douglas, a Scottish merchant of cotton and sugarwho owned a plantation in Demerara, a Dutch colony in present-day Guyana. The Douglas family was well-established in Scotland, and John was descended from the earls of Angus. John’s brother, Lieutenant-General Sir Neil Douglas, became Commander-in-Chief for Scotland in 1842. James Douglas’s mother was Martha Ann Ritchie, a free woman of colour who had been born in Barbados. The term coloured generally referred to a person of mixed race who was of African and European ancestry. The description that she was free indicates that she was not enslaved (see also Black Enslavement in Canada). Martha Ann was the daughter of a free woman of colour, Rebecca. In the 1790s, mother and daughter moved to what is now Guyana in search of better economicopportunities. Rebecca eventually became a hotelier and boarding-house keeper outside of Georgetown and owned 30 slaves. Martha Ann met John Douglas while he was on plan...

    In 1812, when James Douglas was nine years old, his father sent him and his brother, Alexander, to Lanark, Scotland, for schooling. James never returned to Demerara or saw his mother again.

    In 1819, when he was 15, Douglas was apprenticed to the North West Company (NWC), a major force in the fur trade, and sailed to Montreal. He spent his first years working in the counting houses of Fort William (in present-day Ontario) and Île-à-la-Crosse (Saskatchewan), learning the fur trade and its accountingpractices. At the time, intense competition between the NWC and the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) escalated from economic conflict to occasional physical violence (see Battle of Seven Oaks). The teenaged Douglas was soon drawn into the fray. In late 1820, he fought a bloodless duel with Patrick Cunningham, an HBC guide. In April 1821, Douglas was one of four Nor’Westersthe HBC warned not to parade within gunshot of Fort Superior with “Guns, Swords, Flags, Drums, Fifes, etc., etc.” Months later, Douglas became an employee of the HBC after it merged with the NWC.

    In 1826, Douglas was posted at Fort St. James in the New Caledonia district (now mainland British Columbia). He was asked by Chief Factor William Connolly to join the first overland fur brigade from Fort Alexandria on the upper Fraser River to Fort Vancouver (now Vancouver, Washington) on the Columbia River. According to Connolly, Douglas was a “Fine steady active fellow good clerk & Trader, well adapted for a new country.” On 27 April 1828, Douglas married Connolly’s daughter, Amelia, whose mother, Miyo Nipiy, was Cree. (The couple was also married in a Anglicanceremony at Fort Vancouver in 1837.) George Simpson, governor of Rupert’s Land, met Douglas at Fort St. James in 1828. He described Douglas as “a stout, powerful active man of good conduct and respectable abilities.” However, Simpson also mentioned that Douglas became “furiously violent when aroused,” a tendency that brought him into conflicts with the Dakelh (Carrier)peoples. In 1830, Connolly recommended that Douglas be tr...

    In order to prevent American expansion northward, Vancouver Island was declared a Crown colony on 13 January 1849 and was leased to the HBC for 10 years. Douglas, the supervisor of the fur tradesince 1845, was appointed HBC agent on the island. However, the British government selected barrister Richard Blanshard for governor. Blanshard arrived at Fort Victoriain March 1850 to find his residence incomplete. He soon learned that the HBC had virtual control of the colony’s affairs, that most British colonists were associated in some way with the company and that power ultimately rested with Douglas, the chief factor. Blanchard resigned and departed Vancouver Island in August 1851. On 30 October 1851, Douglas learned he had been chosen as governor. His worries were great. He was often criticized for a conflict of interest between his duties as governor and as HBCchief factor, and for the appointments he made to key positions in the colony. According to Douglas, qualified men were in suc...

    From 1850 to 1854, Douglas negotiated 14 land purchases with First Nations on Vancouver Island, including land in and around Fort Victoria, Fort Rupert and Nanaimo. These are known as the Douglas Treaties or Fort Victoria Treaties (see Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada). In each, lands were purchased in exchange for small amounts of cash, clothing, blankets, occupation of reserved lands, and huntingand fishing rights on unoccupied ceded lands. These treaties have long been disputed for several reasons, including the fact that the terms of the agreements were left blank at the time of signing, with the clauses inserted at a later date. According to Indigenous oral history, many of the signatories assumed they were signing a peace treaty to share, not cede, their lands. They reportedly thought that the X they were asked to sign was the symbol of the Christian cross, which they perceived as a spiritual gesture. Others assumed the agreements were a confirmation of their agricul...

    On 25 April 1858, a boatload of boisterous miners from California — the first wave of 25,000 newcomers — arrived in Fort Victoria on their way to search for gold on the Fraser River sandbars (see Fraser River Gold Rush). To that point, Vancouver Island and mainland New Caledoniawere sparsely populated by European settlers. About 500 settlers lived on Vancouver Island and about 150 on the mainland. Concerned by the arrival of so many Americans, Douglas wrote to London: “If the majority of immigrants be American, there will always be a hankering in their minds after annexation to the United States.… They will never cordially submit to English rule, nor possess the loyal feelings of British subjects.” (See also Manifest Destiny.) Douglas understood that British authority over the Fraser River region was too limited to enforce any kind of law and order. As he wrote to British Prime Minister Edward Stanley on 19 May 1858: “I am now convinced that it is utterly impossible, through any mea...

    Douglas also believed that the American miners would provoke a bloody military conflict with the Nlaka’pamux peoples and surrounding Indigenous communities along the Fraser River. He expressed these concerns in a letter to his superiors in England on 15 June 1858, saying: “It will require I fear the nicest tact to avoid a disastrous Indian war.” However, the British could not respond fast enough to restrict the miners’ entrance into the country. By June 1858, thousands of miners from the United States had already made their way to the lower reaches of the Fraser River. As the summer wore on, miners disrupted Nlaka’pamux communities. Some of the men committed acts of sexual violence against Nlaka’pamux women, mined gold without consulting Nlaka’pamux community leaders for permission, threatened violence when challenged and disrupted the Nlaka’pamux salmonfishery. Faced with this sudden mass invasion of foreigners, some members of the Nlaka’pamux nation took up arms to defend themselv...

    With the gold discovery, Britain decided to cancel the special privileges that had been granted the HBC until March 1859. Douglas was offered the governorship of the new colony of British Columbia, this time on the condition that he sever his fur-trade connections. He would be given extensive political power, since it seemed unwise to experiment with self-government among men “so wild, so miscellaneous, and perhaps so transitory.” In November 1858, Douglas, who was still governor of Vancouver Island, was inaugurated at Fort Langley as governor of British Columbia. He was also appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath, in recognition of his administration of Vancouver Island. Douglas expected that a location near Fort Langley would be chosen for the colony’s capital. But for military reasons, Colonel Richard Clement Moody in January 1859 selected a steep, heavily timbered site (New Westminster) on the north bank of the Fraser River. Douglas was concerned about the cost involved in...

    Beginning in 1860, the citizens of British Columbia made several petitions to Douglas for a form of popular government in the colony. Dissatisfied with his response, they directly petitioned the Colonial Office in London in 1863. It seemed an opportune time to retire Douglas as governor of both Vancouver Island and British Columbia, and he left the following year. Douglas was praised for his work and talents and invested as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, which earned him the title Sir.Douglas toured Europe in retirement before returning to Victoria, where he died of a heart attack on 2 August 1877.

  2. Sir James Douglas Primary School, Supply, Mahaica, Demerara, Guyana. Numerous other elementary, middle, and secondary schools across British Columbia are named after Sir James Douglas. Among them is Sir James Douglas elementary school in Victoria, built in 1910 on the property that used to be the governor's farm.

    • Overview
    • Early life
    • Alliance with Bruce
    • The Douglas Larder
    • Roxburgh Falls
    • Bannockburn

    Sir James Douglas was a Scottish knight and feudal lord. He was one of the chief commanders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.

    He was the eldest son of Sir William Douglas, known as "le Hardi" or "the bold", who had been the first noble supporter of William Wallace. His mother was Elizabeth Stewart, the daughter of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, who died circa 1287 or early 1288. His father remarried in late 1288 so Douglas' birth had to be prior to that; however, the destruction of records in Scotland makes an exact date or even year impossible to pinpoint. Douglas was sent to France for safety in the

    For Douglas, who now faced life as a landless outcast on the fringes of feudal society, the return of his ancestral estates was to become an overriding obsession, inevitably impacting on his political allegiances. In John Barbour's rhyming chronicle, The Brus, as much a paean to the young knight as the hero king, Douglas makes his feelings plain to Lamberton; Sir, you see, How the English tyrant forcibly Has dispossessed me of my land And you are made to understand That the earl of Carrick claim

    Douglas's actions for most of 1307 and early 1308, although confined for the most part to his native Douglasdale, were essential to keeping the enemy in the South and freeing Bruce to campaign in the north. He soon created a formidable reputation for himself as a soldier and a tactician. While Bruce was campaigning in the north against his domestic enemies, Douglas used the cover of Selkirk Forest to mount highly effective mobile attacks against the enemy. He also showed himself to be utterly ru

    In the years that followed Douglas was given time to enhance his skills as a soldier. Edward II came north with an army in 1310 in fruitless pursuit of an enemy that simply refused to be pinned down. The frustrations this obviously caused are detailed in the Vita Edwardi Secundi, a contemporary English chronicle; The king entered Scotland with his army but not a rebel was to be found...At that time Robert Bruce, who lurked continually in hiding, did them all the injury he could. One day, when so

    The greatest challenge for Bruce came that same year as Edward invaded Scotland with a large army, nominally aimed at the relief of Stirling Castle, but with the real intention of drawing out Bruce and his men. The Scots army, roughly a quarter the size of the enemy force, was poised to the south of Stirling and prepared to make a quick withdrawal into the wild country to the west. However, their position just north of the Bannock Burn had strong natural advantages, and the king gave orders to s

  3. Sir James Douglas, lord of the Douglas family and champion of Robert de Bruce (King Robert I of Scotland). Son of Sir William Douglas (d. c. 1298), who was captured by the English and died in the Tower of London, Sir James was educated in Paris and returned home to find an Englishman, Robert de

    • Overview
    • Naval career
    • Family

    Sir James Douglas Born1703 Died2 November 1787 Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain Service/branch Royal Navy RankAdmiral of the White Commands heldHMS Mermaid HMS Vigilante Newfoundland Station Leeward Islands Station Jamaica Station Portsmouth Station Battles/warsSeven Years' War Admiral Sir James Douglas, 1st Baronet was a Scottish naval officer and Commodore of Newfoundland.

    Douglas became a captain in the Royal Navy in 1744. In 1745 he commanded HMS Mermaid at Louisbourg and in 1746 he commanded HMS Vigilante at Louisbourg. In 1746 was appointed Commodore, Newfoundland Station by Vice-Admiral Isaac Townsend. [notes 1] He then served as a Member of Parliament for Orkney & Shetland from 1754 to 1768. In 1757 Douglas served as a member of the court-martial which tried and convicted Admiral Byng and in 1759 he was knighted for his participation in the capture of ...

    Douglas was the son of George Douglas, 7th laird of Friarshaw, Roxburghshire, and Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Patrick Scott, baronet, of Ancrum, also of Roxburghshire. This Douglas line descended from the Douglas of Cavers branch of the family, and were lawyers and merchants. They took the title Douglas of Friarshaw from the original seat of the family in the parish of Lilliesleaf. Douglas was twice married: first in 1753 to Helen, daughter of Thomas Brisbane of Brisbane in Ayrshire; the couple h