South Australia (commonly abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 984,321 square kilometres (380,048 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and second smallest state by population.
The Netherlands Indies gulden was the unit of account of the Dutch East Indies from 1602 under the United East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC), following Dutch practice first adopted in the 15th century (gulden coins were not minted in the Netherlands between 1558 and 1681 and none circulated in the Indies until a century later).
The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund, German pronunciation: [ˌdɔɪ̯t͡ʃɐ ˈbʊnt] ) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe. It was created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire , which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire between Two Wars; a Study of the Political and Social Development of the Nation between 1871 and 1914. New York: Macmillan Company. Fischer, Fritz. From Kaiserreich to Third Reich: Elements of Continuity in German History, 1871–1945. (1986). ISBN 0-04-943043-2. Geiss, Imanuel. German Foreign Policy, 1871–1914 (1979) excerpt
The Zollverein unified in 1838 the Prussian and South German currencies at a fixed rate of 1 Prussian thaler = 1 + 3 ⁄ 4 South German gulden = 16.704 g fine silver. A larger currency convention in 1857 replaced the Prussian thaler with the Vereinsthaler of 16 + 2 ⁄ 3 g fine silver, equivalent to 1 North German thaler , 1 + 1 ⁄ 2 Austro-Hungarian florins , or 1 + 3 ⁄ 4 South German gulden .
In 1837, the Prussian thaler was fixed at 1 3 ⁄ 4 South German gulden - hence 9.545 g fine silver per gulden. The North German thaler , valued at 3 ⁄ 4 a Conventionsthaler or 13 1 ⁄ 3 to a Cologne Mark fine silver at the start of the 19th century, was revalued in the 1840s at par with the Prussian thaler , at 14 to a Mark, though with varying subdivisions.
After the German proposals to solve the three main issues peacefully were refused, German-Polish relations rapidly deteriorated. Germany attacked Poland on 1 September after having signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union (which included a Secret Part regarding the division of Poland and the Baltic States between the two countries) in late August and after postponing the attack three ...