AS/A-level 19th & 20th century European & world history (2002) online Morris, Richard B. and Graham W. Irwin, eds. Harper Encyclopedia of the Modern World: A Concise Reference History from 1760 to the Present (1970) online
The 19th (nineteenth) century began on 1 January 1801 , and ended on 31 December 1900 . The 19th century was the ninth century of the 2nd millennium. The 19th century was characterized by vast social upheaval. Slavery was abolished in much of Europe and the Americas.
Some two dozen inventors had experimented with electric incandescent lighting over the first three-quarters of the 19th century but never came up with a practical design. Swan's, which he had been working on since the 1860s, had a low resistance so was only suited for small installations.
This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the acts of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group, in the 19th century. It includes events in the history of antisemitic thought, actions taken to combat or relieve the effects of antisemitism, and events that affected the prevalence of antisemitism in later years.
Timeline of LGBT history – timeline of events from 12,000 BCE to present; LGBT rights by country or territory – current legal status around the world; LGBT social movements; Timeline of LGBT history, 20th century; Timeline of LGBT history, 21st century; Timeline of transgender history; Notes
This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources. This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the facts of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group, in the 20th century. It includes events in the history of antisemitic thought, actions taken ...
Mid-19th century Beginning of the rise of classical Reform Judaism. Mid-19th century Rabbi Israel Salanter develops the Mussar Movement. While teaching that Jewish law is binding, he dismisses current philosophical debate and advocates the ethical teachings as the essence of Judaism. Mid-19th century