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  1. In 1861, he graduated with the title of "Artist", another gold medal (for his painting of Sophia of Lithuania at the wedding of her son, Vasily II) and the right to a stipend for study abroad. Before leaving, he taught for a short time at a preparatory school in Saint Petersburg.

    • Prehistoric Sweden and The Viking Ages
    • Middle Ages
    • The Early Vasa Era
    • The Swedish Empire Era
    • The Age of Liberty
    • Gustavian Times
    • The Union Era
    • World War I
    • World War II
    • Cold War

    During the prehistoric times, modern Sweden was divided into provinces and in the Svea and Göta kingdoms. There is said that wars were fought between Svear and Götar and that the former were victors. As the Icelandic sagas tell of many family feuds, one can assume that these were not uncommon in Sweden either, as the structure of the society was si...

    The Russo-Swedish War (1495–97) was a result of an alliance between Ivan III of Russia and Hans of Denmark, who was waging war against the Sture family of Sweden in the hope of regaining the Swedish throne. Ivan III sent Princes Daniil Shchenya and Vasily Shuisky to lay siege to the Swedish castle of Vyborg. The siege lasted for three months and en...

    Swedish War of Liberation

    The Swedish War of Liberation (1521–1523) was a civil war in which the Swedish nobleman Gustav Vasa successfully deposed the Danish king Kristian II, as regent of the Kalmar Union in Sweden.

    The De la Gardie Campaign

    The De la Gardie Campaign refers to the actions of a 15,000-strong military unit commanded by Jacob De la Gardie in alliance with the Russian commander Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18). The campaign was a result of an alliance between Charles IX of Sweden and Vasili IV of Russia, whereby the latter promised to cede the County of Kexholmto Sweden. The combined Russo-Swedish forces set out from Novgorod late in 1609 and marc...

    The Ingrian War

    The Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia, which lasted between 1610 and 1617 and can be seen as part of the Time of Troubles, is mainly remembered for the attempt to put a Swedish duke on the Russian throne. It ended with a large Swedish territorial gain in the Treaty of Stolbovo which laid an important foundation to Sweden's Age of Greatness.

    The Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, and involved most of the major European continental powers, including Sweden. Although it was from the outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the rivalry between the Habsburgdynasty and other powers was also a central motive. Sweden held, for a time, control of the principal trade routes of the Baltic; and the increment of revenue resulting from this commanding posi...

    The Torstenson War

    The Torstenson war was a short period of conflict between Sweden and Denmark/Norway which occurred in 1643 to 1645 during the waning days of the Thirty Years' War. It was named after Lennart Torstenson.

    Dutch-Swedish War

    The Dano-Swedish War (1658–1660), was a Dutch intervention in the Northern Wars, in which Swedentried to extend its control over the Baltic Sea.

    Hats and Caps

    The policy of the Hats was a return to the traditional alliance between France and Sweden. When Sweden descended to a position of a second-rate power the French - alliance became too costly a luxury. Horn had clearly perceived this; and his cautious neutrality was therefore the soundest statesmanship. But the politicians who had ousted Horn thought differently. To them prosperity without glory was a worthless possession. They aimed at restoring Sweden to her former position as a great power....

    The Pomeranian War

    King Adolf Frederick of Sweden (1751–1771) would have given even less trouble than his predecessor but for the ambitious promptings of his masterful consort Louisa Ulrika, Frederick the Great's sister, and the tyranny of the estates, who seemed bent upon driving the meekest of princes into rebellion. An attempted monarchical revolution, planned by the queen and a few devoted young nobles in 1756, was easily and remorselessly crushed; and, though the unhappy king did not, as he anticipated, sh...

    Gustav III's Russian War

    The Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90, known as Gustav III's Russian War in Sweden and as Catherine II's Swedish War in Russia, was fought between Sweden and Russiafrom June 1788 to August 1790. The conflict was initiated by King Gustav III of Sweden for domestic political reasons, as he believed that a short war would leave the opposition no recourse but to support him. Despite establishing himself an autocrat in bloodless coup d'étatthat ended parliamentary rule in 1772, his political powers did...

    The Finnish War

    The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, according to the Finns a personal union with Imperial Russia. Another notable effect was the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and a new royal house, that of Bernadotte.

    The Napoleonic Wars

    The Napoleonic Wars comprised a series of global conflicts fought during Napoleon Bonaparte's imperial rule over France (1805–1815). These wars were to some extent a continuation of the French Revolutionary Wars which followed on the French Revolution of 1789. Sweden was part of the Fourth Coalition, an alliance organized against Napoleon's French Empire in 1806–1807. Under the leadership of its new Crown Prince Charles John, formerly French Marshal Bernadotte, Sweden was a founding member of...

    The Battle of Bornhöved

    The Battle of Bornhöved was a battle between Sweden and Denmark on December 7, 1813 in Bornhöved in northern Germany. The Swedes were victorious and this was a first step in conquering Norway. This would be realized in the Treaty of Kielof 1814.

    War with Norway

    According to the Treaty of Kiel, the king of Denmark–Norway ceded Norway to the king of Sweden. However, Norwegian resistance led to the restoration of Norwegian independence in 1814. Trying to enforce the provisions of the Kiel treaty, Sweden invaded Norway in July 1814. After two weeks, the superior strength of the Swedish army had forced the Norwegians to conclude the Convention of Moss on August 14, 1814. Norway kept its new constitution and formal independence, but had to accept a person...

    Sweden was officially neutral during World War I, although, under German pressure, they did take steps which were detrimental to the Allied powers including mining the Öresund channel, thus closing it to Allied shipping. Sweden also provided volunteers fighting for the White Guards together with the Germans against the Reds and Russians in the Finn...

    Swedish neutrality – national policy since the end of the Napoleonic Wars – was maintained during World War II.

    Sweden kept the non-alignment policy as well as the conscription-based army. The Swedish Air Force became one of the world's most prominent thanks to SAAB and other contractors. During this time a concept of "total defence" was developed to counter the feared full-scale invasion by the Soviet Union. This included, for example; bomb shelters in all ...