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  1. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603 (as James I), he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life.

  2. Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland (from 1603 also James I of England) and Anne of Denmark. He became heir to the throne on the death of his brother, Prince Henry, in 1612. He succeeded, as the second Stuart King of Great Britain, in 1625.

    • Early Life
    • Early Reign
    • Tyranny Or Personal Rule?
    • Religious Conflicts
    • The "Short" and "Long" Parliaments
    • English Civil War
    • Trial and Execution
    • Legacy
    • Style and Arms
    • Ancestry and Descent

    The second son of James VI, King of Scots and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on November 19, 1600. He was an underdeveloped child (he is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the nation's shortest king) who was still unable to walk or talk at the age of three. When Elizabeth Idied in March 1603 and James VI became King of England as James I, Charles was originally left in Scotland in the care of nurses and servants because it was feared that the journey would damage his fragile health. He did make the journey in July 1604 and was subsequently placed under the charge of Alletta (Hogenhove) Carey, the Dutch-born wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who taught him how to walk and talk and insisted that he wear boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles. As an adult Charles was 5 feet 4 inches (162 cm) tall. Charles was not as well-regarded as his elder brother, Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales; Charles himself ado...

    Charles ascended the throne on March 27, 1625 and on June 13 of that year was married to Henrietta Maria, nine years his junior, by proxy. His first Parliament, which he opened in May, was opposed to his marriage to Henrietta Maria, a Roman Catholic, because it feared that Charles would lift restrictions on Roman Catholics and undermine the official establishment of Protestantism. Although he agreed with Parliament that he would not relax restrictions relating to recusants, he promised to do exactly that in a secret marriage treaty with Louis XIII. The couple was married on June 13, 1625, in Canterbury. Charles was crowned on February 2, 1626 at Westminster Abbey, but without his wife at his side due to the controversy. They had nine children, with three sons and three daughters surviving infancy.[[Image:Van Dyck Charles I.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Charles I painted around 1635 by Sir Anthony Van Dyck.]] Distrust of Charles's religious policies was increased by the controversy surrounding t...

    In January 1629 Charles opened the second session of the Parliament which had been prorogued in June 1628. Charles saw a conspiracy at work, due to the recent assassination of Buckingham, calling his commons “seditious.” Members of the House of Commons began to voice their opposition in light of the Rolle case. Rolle was an MP who had his goods confiscated for not paying tonnage and poundage. This was seen by many MPs as a breach of the Petition of Right, who argued that the freedom from arrest privilege extended to goods. When he requested a parliamentary adjournment in March, members held the Speaker, John Finch, down in his chair while three resolutions against Charles were read aloud. The last of these resolutions declared that anyone who paid tonnage or poundage not authorized by Parliament would "be reputed a betrayer of the liberties of England, and an enemy to the same." Though the resolution was not formally passed, many members declared their approval. The fact that a numb...

    Charles wished to move the Church of England away from Calvinism in a more traditional and sacramental direction. This goal was shared by his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud. Laud was appointed by Charles as the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633 and started a series of unpopular reforms in the Church to make it more ceremonial. Laud attempted to ensure religious uniformity by dismissing non-conformist clergymen and closing Puritan organizations. This was actively hostile to the Reformist tendencies of many of Charles’s English and Scottish subjects. His policy was obnoxious to Calvinist theology, and insisted that the Church of England's liturgy be celebrated with all of the ceremony and vestments called for by the Book of Common Prayer. Laud was also an advocate of Arminian theology, a view in which emphasis on the ability to reject salvation was viewed as heretical and virtually "Catholic" by strict Calvinists. To punish those who refused to accept his reforms, Laud...

    Disputes regarding the interpretation of the peace treaty between Charles and the Church of Scotland led to further conflict. To subdue the Scots, Charles needed more money; therefore, he took the fateful step of recalling Parliament in April 1640. Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, and the House of Commons agreed to allow Charles to raise the funds for war, an impasse was reached when Parliament demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the Personal Rule. As both sides refused to give ground on this matter, Parliament was dissolved in May 1640, less than a month after it assembled. Thus, the Parliament became known as the "Short Parliament." In the meantime, Charles attempted to defeat the Scots, but failed miserably. The humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed after the end of the Second Bishops' War in October 1640, required the king to pay the expenses of the Scottish army he had just fought. Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium...

    The English Civil Warhad not yet started, but both sides began to arm. After futile negotiations, Charles raised the royal standard (an anachronistic medieval gesture) in Nottingham on August 22, 1642. He then set up his court at Oxford, whence his government controlled roughly the north and west of England, with Parliament remaining in control of London and the south and east. Charles raised an army using the archaic method of the Commission of Array. The Civil War started on October 25, 1642 with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through 1643 and 1644, until the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favor of Parliament. There followed a great number of defeats for the Royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped in April 1646. He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, England, and was taken to nearby Southwell, Nottinghamshire while his "hosts" decided what to do with him. The...

    Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and thereafter to Windsor Castle. In January 1649 in response to Charles's defiance of Parliament even after defeat, and his encouraging the second Civil War while in captivity, the House of Commons passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial. After the first Civil War, the Parliamentarians still accepted the premise that the king, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, and that he would still be entitled to limited powers as king under a new constitutional settlement. It was now felt that by provoking the second Civil War even while defeated and in captivity, Charles showed himself incorrigible, dishonorable, and responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed. The idea of trying a king was a novel one; previous monarchs had been deposed, but had never been brought to trial as monarchs. The High Court of Justice established by the act consisted of 135 Commissioners (all firm Parliamentarians). The prose...

    With the monarchy overthrown, power was assumed by a Council of State, which included Oliver Cromwell, then Lord General of the Parliamentary Army. The Long Parliament (known by then as the Rump Parliament) which had been called by Charles I in 1640 continued to exist until Cromwell forcibly disbanded it in 1653. Cromwell then became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland; a monarch in all but name: he was even "invested" on the royal coronation chair. Upon his death in 1658, Cromwell was briefly succeeded by his son, Richard Cromwell. Richard Cromwell was an ineffective ruler, and the Long Parliament was reinstated in 1659. The Long Parliament dissolved itself in 1660, and the first elections in 20 years led to the election of a Convention Parliament which restored Charles I's eldest son to the monarchy as Charles II. Upon the Restoration, Charles II added a commemoration of his father—to be observed on January 30, the date of his execution—to the Book of Common Prayer. I...

    The official style of Charles I was "Charles, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." (The claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English King since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) The authors of his death warrant, however, did not wish to use the religious portions of his title. It only referred to him as "Charles Stuart, King of England." Whilst he was king, Charles I's arms were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).

    Marriage and Issue

    Charles was father to a total of nine legitimate children, two of whom would eventually succeed him as king. Several other children died in childhood. Charles is also believed to have had a daughter prior to his marriage with Henrietta Maria. Her name was Joanna Brydges, born 1619-1620, the daughter of a Miss Brydges ("a member of a younger branch of the ancient Kentish family of that name"), possibly from the line of Brydges of Chandos and Sudeley. Joanna Brydges, who was provided for by the...

  3. 16/01/2022 · Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark. On the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 James became king of England and Ireland. Charles's ...

    • Early Life
    • Charles' Religion
    • King
    • Death

    Charles was born at Dunfermline Palace in Fife, Scotland, before his father James VI and I came to the throneof England. Charles was came to England in 1604. When Charles's older brother Henry Frederick died in 1612, Charles became the Prince of Wales and the heir apparent to his father's kingdoms. He had an elder brother, Henry, who was clever, handsome, popular, and rich, and next in line for the throne. Henry died suddenly in 1612, and then his brother Charles was made Prince of Walesin his place, showing that he was now the heir to the throne. Charles was less suited to be king than Henry had been, because he was small and weak and not as clever. After his brother died, the person Charles was closest to was George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who was also his father's best friend. The Duke of Buckingham was very powerful and rich, but was not popular with most common people. He took Charles to Spain in the hope of finding him a Spanish princess as a bride, but they had a lot of...

    His religious policies, and his marriage to a Roman Catholic, made him mistrusted by Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported "high church" Anglican ecclesiastics, and failed to help Protestant forces enough in the Thirty Years' War. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliamentsand were a cause of his downfall.

    Charles, now the king, convened the parliament again in 1625. The parliament did not give the king what the king wanted. The men in parliament did not like Charles's friend George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Buckingham had gone with Charles to Spain and later helped him to marry Henrietta Maria. When Buckingham led the Royal Navy to attack Cadiz in Spain, the campaign was a failure, and the Parliament of England impeached him. Because of this, Charles stopped (dissolved) the parliament. He also wanted to send soldiers to help Protestants in the Kingdom of France, and made demands for more money as payment for the army. This campaign was also a failure, and the king had to agree to the Petition of Rightin 1628. An army officer assassinated Buckingham that summer. The Parliament of England convened again in 1629. There were many disagreements about religion and the organization of the Church of England. Charles gave support to the "High Church" group, but the parliament gave the...

    At the trial he was found guilty. He was decapitated in a public execution outside the Banqueting House of the palace at Whitehall. Some of the members of Parliament who were opposed to killing king Charles were purged, and from this time on, what was left of the Long Parliament became known as the Rump Parliament. This Parliament took complete power in England, and there was not a new king at all until 1660.

    • 2 February 1626
    • James I
  4. 27/10/2021 · Charles I was a king of England, Scotland and Ireland, whose conflicts with parliament and his subjects led to civil war and his execution.

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