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  1. However, it has been argued by some that Paranthropus is an invalid grouping and synonymous with Australopithecus, so the species is also often classified as Australopithecus robustus. Robust australopithecines—as opposed to gracile australopithecines—are characterised by heavily built skulls capable of producing high stresses and bite forces , as well as inflated cheek teeth ( molars and ...

  2. The genus Paranthropus (otherwise known as "robust australopithecines") typically includes P. boisei, P. aethiopicus and P. robustus. It is debated if Paranthropus is a valid natural grouping (monophyletic) or an invalid grouping of similar-looking hominins (paraphyletic).

  3. Paranthropus aethiopicus is an extinct species of robust australopithecine from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene of East Africa about 2.7–2.3 million years ago. However, it is much debated whether or not Paranthropus is an invalid grouping and is synonymous with Australopithecus , so the species is also often classified as Australopithecus aethiopicus . [1]

  4. Este complejo de once yacimientos, muy próximos entre sí, fue descubierto por Richard Leakey al hallar una mandíbula de Paranthropus robustus en 1964. Está siendo excavado, desde fechas recientes, por un grupo internacional dirigido por especialistas españoles formados en el seno del equipo de Atapuerca.

  5. The genus or group Paranthropus currently includes three species, P. boisei, P. robustus, and P. aethiopicus. They are collectively known as the ‘robusts’ because of their extremely large jaws and molar teeth. They are our distant ‘cousins’ rather than our direct relatives.

  6. Renaissance, (French: “Rebirth”) period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages and conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in Classical scholarship and values. The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the decline of the ...

  7. It is also suggested that A. africanus is closely related to P. robustus but not to the other Paranthropus species in East Africa, or that A. africanus is ancestral to all Paranthropus. A. africanus has also been postulated to have been ancestral to A. sediba which also inhabited the Cradle of Humankind, perhaps contemporaneously.