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  1. Philippe Pinel (20 de abril de 1745 - 25 de octubre de 1826) fue un médico francés dedicado al estudio y tratamiento de las enfermedades mentales.Pertenece al grupo de pensadores que constituyeron la clínica médica como observación y análisis sistemático de los fenómenos perceptibles de la enfermedad.

  2. 06/05/2019 · Philippe Pinel, un comienzo difícil. Philippe Pinel nació en Jonquières (Francia), el 25 de abril de 1745. Era hijo de un modesto cirujano. Realizó sus estudios básicos en el colegio de Lavaur y luego abrazó la carrera religiosa. Durante su paso por el seminario, aprendió lenguas clásicas. Sin embargo, duró poco allí.

  3. 20/05/2011 · El médico francés Philippe Pinel nació en Jonquières (Tarn), el 20 de abril de 1745. Hijo de un modesto cirujano, ingresó en el internado de los religiosos del Oratorio de Lavaur, donde ...

  4. Philippe Pinel, French physician who pioneered in the humane treatment of the mentally ill. Arriving in Paris (1778), he supported himself for a number of years by translating scientific and medical works and by teaching mathematics.

  5. Philippe Pinel (French: ; 20 April 1745 – 25 October 1826) was a French physician, precursor of psychiatry and incidentally a zoologist.He was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.

    • 25 October 1826 (aged 81), Paris, France
    • Psychiatry
    • Beginnings
    • A Would-Be Priest Switches to Medicine
    • Life in Paris
    • The French Revolution Helps Pinel’s Career
    • Bicêtre Hospital – Not Removing The Chains
    • The Beginning of Progress
    • Pinel Makes Changes
    • Progress Through Trial and Error
    • Developments Elsewhere
    • Reviving An Ancient Tradition

    Philippe Pinel was born into a relatively prosperous family on April 20, 1745 in the French township of Jonquières. He was the first of his parents’ seven children. His father was Philippe Francois Pinel, a doctor and surgeon. His mother was Élisabeth Dupuy, whose family were also doctors. Philippe was educated by his mother and by a local schoolmaster, Father Gorse, who taught him Latin. Sadly, Philippe’s mother died when he was 15. Father Gorse recommended Philippe be sent to the high school in Lavaur about 20 miles (30 km) away to complete his education in the humanities. Philippe completed high school, then became a student at Lavaur’s Collège Les Clauzades.

    A tender-hearted and shy young man, Pinel was considered an ideal candidate for the priesthood. In 1767, aged 22, he moved to the city of Toulouse to study theology. In Toulouse he came under the influence of Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, who took a dim view of traditional religion. In 1770 Pinel decided to follow in his father’s footsteps: rather than studying for the priesthood, he began studying medicine, receiving a doctorate in 1773, aged 28. He then moved to the university town of Montpellier for four years, completing his practical education in hospitals by the age of 32. He was able to earn money in Montpellier writing essays on behalf of wealthy students. He also began teaching mathematics, a subject that interested him greatly. In fact, the first two academic papers he wrote dealt with the mathematics of human anatomy. He published these in 1777.

    Pinel moved to Paris in 1778, aged 33. He was refused permission to practice medicine in France’s capital because his medical degree was from Toulouse, a provincial university. He made a modest living in Paris working as a medical writer, translator, and mathematics tutor. Things looked up in 1784 when he was appointed editor of Gazette de santé – The Health Journal. A friend’s suicide prompted him to investigate mental illness. He began writing about mental illness for Gazette de santéand he also secured employment in a private asylum where he could study severe mental illness more thoroughly. In 1785, aged 40, he joined the salon of Madame Helvétius, a club where intellectuals met and exchanged philosophical ideas. Also in 1785 Franz Mesmerleft Paris under a cloud. Mesmer had made a fortune using ‘animal magnetism’ to treat people with psychosomatic diseases. Pinel noted that Mesmer’s methods seemed to work for some people but not for others. The French Revolution began in 1789. P...

    The French monarchy was abolished in 1792. In January 1793 Pinel was one of the doctors required to attend the execution by guillotine of King Louis XVI, an experience that horrified him. The revolution actually helped Pinel’s career. In August 1793, aged 48, he was appointed senior physician at the Bicêtre Hospital, a Paris hospital accommodating 4,000 patients including about 200 categorized as insane. A few months later, one of France’s greatest scientists suffered the same fate as the King. In May 1794 the brilliant chemist Antoine Lavoisierwas guillotined by revolutionary zealots.

    In the 1700s it was normal practice to restrain mentally ill people by chaining them to the walls of hospitals or asylums. It is often said that Pinel freed the patients at Bicêtre from their restraint chains. This is actually a myth. What is true is that Pinel furthered the understanding and treatment of the mentally ill substantially. In doing so he founded psychiatry as a scientific discipline. His approach to medicine and the mind, he said, was most heavily influenced by the writings of John Locke and Ètienne de Condillac.

    Having previously worked in an asylum, Pinel was interested to see how mentally ill patients were treated at Bicêtre. There he encountered Jean-Baptiste Pussin, the head of the mental ward. Pussin was managing patients in a way Pinel had not seen before. In 1790, three years before Pinel arrived, Pussin had ordered chains removed from most of the patients, some of whom had been chained for decades. Pussin also prohibited violence against the patients. Pinel was impressed by Pussin’s regime, but things were not perfect. He noted that:

    Pinel started making further changes to the management of mentally ill patients. He: 1. abandoned ancient treatments such as Galen’sbloodletting, which he could find no clinical evidence in favor of 2. recognized that he was dealing with individual people with specific problems rather than a uniform mass of lunatics 3. abolished visits by ghoulish members of the public who paid to came to laugh, ridicule, upset, and sneer at the patients 4. visited his patients daily, talking to them one-to-one, observing their behaviors, building up case files on each person 5. gathered evidence from a large number of cases in order to rationalize mental illness, understand its causes, and devise effective therapies

    Ending the practice of bloodletting and other ancient ‘cures’ was characteristic of Pinel’s trial and error approach. If he found evidence that an approach helped his patients and he considered it humane, he would continue with it; otherwise he would stop it. Pinel abandoned bloodletting against the prevailing scientific view. Many physicians believed mental illness was caused by too much blood reaching the brain; they treated this by regularly draining some blood from their patients. The all-too-common non-scientific view was that serious mental illness resulted from demonic possession and therefore sufferers need not be treated humanely.

    Near the end of the 1700s freeing the mentally ill from chains was a phenomenon taking place in other European nations: for example, in Italy, directed by Vincenzo Chiarugi; and in the United Kingdom, directed by Daniel Tuke. These were not widespread initiatives – chains were only removed in a few specific asylums.

    Humane treatment of the insane was not a new concept in Europe: it had been practiced in both Ancient Greece and Rome, but abandoned in the Dark Ages. As the Enlightenment swept through many Western countries in the 1700s, a trend towards more humane treatments came with it. However, it took many decades before humane treatments became the norm.

    • Pinel, Médico por Herencia
    • Un Médico Diferente A Los demás
    • Distinción Y Clasificación de Las Enfermedades Mentales por Pinel

    Pinel nació el 20 de abril de 1745 en Jonquières, Francia. La medicina le venía de familia, pues su padre también era médico, concretamente cirujano. Estudió latín y religión en un internado religioso en Lavaur. También estuvo enseñando teología, pero pronto después tuvo claro que no quería seguir dedicándose a la religión, y por ello acabo trasladándose a Toulouse. Es aquí donde comenzaría a estudiar medicina y matemáticas doctorándose en el año 1773. Continuaría sus estudios en la ciudad de Montpellier, antes de dar el salto a París en el año 1778. Aquí, empezaría dando clases particulares de matemáticas y redactando textos médicos. Pocos años más tarde, en 1784 comenzó a dirigir la Gazette de Santé, donde traducía otros escritos médicos, como los de Cullen, lo que le serviría para escribir posteriormente su Nosographie Philosephique, siendo ambas muy similares. En el año 1789, participó en la revolución francesa y más tarde comenzó a tratar pacientes con enfermedades mentales en...

    Pues, como podremos ver más adelante, tenía una manera muy diferente y mucho más positiva de tratar a sus pacientes, hasta el punto de suprimir por completo muchas de las terapias que hasta entonces se venían aplicando con total normalidad en manicomios y hospicios. En esta etapa, tendrían gran repercusión en él las prácticas de Jean-Baptiste Pussin, quien era caritativo y proporcionaba un trato diferente a los pacientes. Pinel lo tomó como su ejemplo a seguir tanto en su capacidad de observación como en sus maneras benevolentes con los enfermos. Se encargó de quitar las cadenas, mientras comenzaba con sus estudios sintomáticos de las enfermedades y los trastornos mentales. Así, se pudieron guardar y conservar historiales y documentos. Tal rigor le valió el sobrenombre de fundador de la psiquiatría en Francia. Del mismo modo, eliminó de sus terapias las sangrías y otras prácticas carentes de sentido o crueles, intentando curar y mejorar el estado de los enfermos a través de un enfoq...

    De esta manera, fue forjando el desarrollo y la evolución de la anatomía patológica, con un nuevo sistema de clasificación de las enfermedades mentales, que quedaría patente en Traité mèdico-philosophique sur l’aliénation mentaleen el año 1801. Su clasificación determina la melancolía, la manía, el mutismo y la demencia. Así mismo, defiende que las causas de los desarreglos de las facultades mentales que propician las enfermases psíquicas son físicas, por herencia o, en su mayoría, morales, distinguiendo entre pasiones intensas y excesos. Su primera edición se subtitulaba además La Manía, pero esto cambió de cara a la segunda, ya que movió el foco de las enfermedades mentales hacia el comportamiento y los diferentes grados de perturbación y trastorno psíquico. Como podemos ver, era un hombre totalmente contrario a los métodos que se venían imponiendo durante el tratamiento de los enfermos mentales. Por esta razón, es considerado un auténtico precursor del cambio y la reformulación d...

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