Hace 3 días · Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German emperor ( German: Kaiser) and King of Prussia from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918, which marked the end of the German Empire and the House of Hohenzollern 's 300-year reign in Prussia and 500-year reign in Brandenburg .
Hace 3 días · Following the Juye Incident of 1 November 1897, in which two German missionaries from the Society of the Divine Word were murdered, Kaiser Wilhelm dispatched the East Asia Squadron to occupy Jiaozhou Bay and its chief port Qingdao on the southern coast of the Shandong peninsula.
- The Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles, peace document signed at the end of World War I by the Allied and associated powers and by Germany in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, France, on June 28, 1919; it took force on January 10, 1920.
A brief treatment of the Treaty of Versailles follows. For full treatment, see international relations: Peacemaking, 1919–22.
When the German government asked U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson to arrange a general armistice in October 1918, it declared that it accepted the Fourteen Points that he had formulated and presented to the U.S. Congress in January 1918 as the basis for a just peace. However, the Allies demanded “compensation by Germany for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allies and their property by the aggression of Germany by land, by sea and from the air.” Further, the nine points covering new territorial consignments were complicated by the secret treaties that England, France, and Italy had made with Greece, Romania, and each other during the last years of the war.
The treaty was drafted in the spring of 1919 during the Paris Peace Conference, which was conducted even as the world was in the grip of the influenza pandemic of 1918–19. The conference was dominated by the national leaders known as the “Big Four”—David Lloyd George, the prime minister of the United Kingdom; Georges Clemenceau, the prime minister of France; Woodrow Wilson, the president of the United States; and Vittorio Orlando, the prime minister of Italy. The first three in particular made the important decisions. None of the defeated nations had any say in shaping the treaty, and even the associated Allied powers played only a minor role. The German delegates were presented with a fait accompli. They were shocked at the severity of the terms and protested the contradictions between the assurances made when the armistice was negotiated and the actual treaty. Accepting the “war guilt” clause and the reparation terms was especially odious to them.
- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Hace 4 días · Kaiser Wilhelm cabled his concerns to Czar Nicholas about the Russian mobilization, which was threatening Austria-Hungary. Nicholas responded that Russian general mobilization was not aimed as a prelude to war.
19 de sept. de 2023 · From the thrust of his statement, Wilhelm seems to have been more concerned with extracting punitive justice from Belgrade with military force than de-escalating the crisis. See Martel, Origins of the First World War, pp. 121-122 (Document 31). Back to (9) Hamilton and Herwig, The Origins of World War I, 180.