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- Emergence of MOOC Providers
- Student Experience and Pedagogy
- Information Architecture
- Challenges and Criticisms
- See Also
- Further Reading
Before the Digital Age, distance learning appeared in the form of correspondence courses in the 1890s–1920s and later radio and television broadcast of courses and early forms of e-learning. Typically fewer than five percent of the students would complete a course. For example the Stanford Honors Cooperative Program, established in 1954, eventually offered video classes on-site at companies, at night, leading to a fully accredited Master's degree. This program was controversial because the co...
The first MOOCs emerged from the open educational resources (OER) movement, which was sparked by MIT OpenCourseWare project. The OER movement was motivated from work by researchers who pointed out that class size and learning outcomes had no established connection, with Daniel Barwick's work being the most often-cited example. Within the OER movement, the Wikiversity was founded in 2006 and the first open course on the platform was organised in 2007. Ten-week course with more than 70 students...
cMOOCs and xMOOCs
As MOOCs developed with time, multiple conceptions of the platform seem to have emerged. Mostly two different types can be differentiated: those that emphasize a connectivist philosophy, and those that resemble more traditional courses. To distinguish the two, several early adopters of the platform proposed the terms "cMOOC" and "xMOOC". cMOOCs are based on principles from connectivist pedagogy indicating that material should be aggregated (rather than pre-selected), remixable, re-purposable,...
According to The New York Times, 2012 became "the year of the MOOC" as several well-financed providers, associated with top universities, emerged, including Coursera, Udacity, and edX. During a presentation at SXSWedu in early 2013, Instructure CEO Josh Coates suggested that MOOCs are in the midst of a hype cycle, with expectations undergoing wild swings. Dennis Yang, President of MOOC provider Udemy, later made the point in an article for the Huffington Post. Many universities scrambled to join in the "next big thing", as did more established online education service providers such as Blackboard Inc, in what has been called a "stampede." Dozens of universities in Canada, Mexico, Europe and Asia have announced partnerships with the large American MOOC providers. By early 2013, questions emerged about whether academia was "MOOC'd out."This trend was later confirmed in continuing analysis. The industry has an unusual structure, consisting of linked groups including MOOC providers, the...
By June 2012, more than 1.5 million people had registered for classes through Coursera, Udacity or edX. As of 2013, the range of students registered appears to be broad, diverse and non-traditional, but concentrated among English-speakers in rich countries. By March 2013, Coursera alone had registered about 2.8 million learners.By October 2013, Coursera enrollment continued to surge, surpassing 5 million, while edX had independently reached 1.3 million. A course billed as "Asia's first MOOC"...
In 2013, the Chronicle of Higher Educationsurveyed 103 professors who had taught MOOCs. "Typically a professor spent over 100 hours on his MOOC before it even started, by recording online lecture videos and doing other preparation", though some instructors' pre-class preparation was "a few dozen hours". The professors then spent 8–10 hours per week on the course, including participation in discussion forums. The medians were: 33,000 students enrollees; 2,600 passing; and 1 teaching assistant...
Despite their potential to support learning and education, MOOCs have a major concern related to attrition rates and course drop out. Even though the number of learners who enroll in the courses tends to be in the thousands range, only a very small portion of the enrolled learners complete the course. According to the visualizations and analysis conducted by Katy Jordan (2015), the investigated MOOCs have a typical enrollment of 25,000, even though enrollment has reached a value up to ~230,00...
When searching for the desired course, the courses are usually organized by "most popular" or a "topical scheme". Courses planned for synchronous learning are structured as an exact organizational scheme called a chronological scheme, Courses planned for asynchronous learning are also presented as a chronological scheme, but the order the information is learned as a hybrid scheme. In this way it can be harder to understand the course content and complete, because they are not based on an existing mental model.
MOOCs are widely seen as a major part of a larger disruptive innovation taking place in higher education. In particular, the many services offered under traditional university business models are predicted to become unbundled and sold to students individually or in newly formed bundles.These services include research, curriculum design, content generation (such as textbooks), teaching, assessment and certification (such as granting degrees) and student placement. MOOCs threaten existing business models by potentially selling teaching, assessment, or placement separately from the current package of services. President Barack Obama has cited recent developments, including the online learning innovations at Carnegie Mellon University, Arizona State Universityand Georgia Institute of Technology, as having potential to reduce the rising costs of higher education. James Mazoue, Director of Online Programs at Wayne State Universitydescribes one possible innovation: But how universities wil...
Improving access to higher education
MOOCs are regarded by many as an important tool to widen access to higher education (HE) for millions of people, including those in the developing world, and ultimately enhance their quality of life.MOOCs may be regarded as contributing to the democratisation of HE, not only locally or regionally but globally as well. MOOCs can help democratise content and make knowledge reachable for everyone. Students are able to access complete courses offered by universities all over the world, something...
Providing an affordable alternative to formal education
The costs of tertiary education continue to increase because institutions tend to bundle too many services. With MOOCs, some of these services can be transferred to other suitable players in the public or private sector. MOOCs are for large numbers of participants, can be accessed by anyone anywhere as long as they have an Internet connection, are open to everyone without entry qualifications and offer a full/complete course experience online for free.
Sustainable development goals
MOOCs can be seen as a form of open education offered for free through online platforms. The (initial) philosophy of MOOCs is to open up quality higher education to a wider audience. As such, MOOCs are an important tool to achieve goal 4 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The MOOC Guidesuggests six possible challenges for cMOOCs: 1. Relying on user-generated content can create a chaotic learning environment. 2. Digital literacyis necessary to make use of the online materials. 3. The time and effort required from participants may exceed what students are willing to commit to a free online course. 4. Once the course is released, content will be reshaped and reinterpreted by the massive student body, making the course trajectory difficult for instructors to control. 5. Participants must self-regulate and set their own goals. 6. Language and translation barriers. 7. Accessibility barriers for differently-abled users 8. Access barriers for people from low socio-economic neighbourhoods and countries with very little internet access These general challenges in effective MOOC development are accompanied by criticism by journalists and academics. Robert Zemsky (2014) argues that they have passed their peak: "They came; they conquered very little; and now they...
This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from Making Sense of MOOCs: A Guide for Policy...
Walsh, Taylor (2011). Unlocking the Gates: How and Why Leading Universities Are Opening Up Access to Their Courses. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691148748.
08/10/2021 · Escenario de la epidemia en la República Democrática del Congo, principal afectado a nivel mundial. /4. /0. /4. La epidemia de ébola de 2018-2020 fue una epidemia provocada desde el 1 de agosto de 2018, cuando se confirmó que cuatro casos habían dado positivo al virus del Ébola en la región de Kivu, en la República Democrática del ...
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15/10/2021 · Wiktionary (a portmanteau of “ wiki ” and “ dictionary ”) is a project to create open-content dictionaries in every language. The first Wiktionary was the English language Wiktionary, created by Brion Vibber on December 12, 2002. French and Polish language Wiktionaries followed over a year later, on March 22, 2004.