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16/10/2021 · Between 1995 and 2005, the capacitance of a Y5V MLCC capacitor of size 1206 was increased from 4.7 μF to 100 μF. Meanwhile, (2013) a lot of producers can deliver class 2 MLCC capacitors with a capacitance value of 100 μF in the chip-size 0805. MLCC case sizes
- Hartlib Circle – Royal Society
- Economics, Agriculture, Politics
- Science and Medicine
- Further Reading
- External Links
Hartlib is often described as an "intelligencer", and indeed has been called "the Great Intelligencer of Europe". His main aim in life was to further knowledge. He kept in touch with an array of contacts from high philosophers to gentleman farmers. He maintained a voluminous correspondence, lost in 1667, but much recovered since 1945; it is housed in a special Hartlib collection at the University of Sheffield, England. Hartlib became one of the best-connected intellectual figures of the Commonwealthera. He was responsible for patents, spreading information and fostering learning. He circulated designs for calculators, double-writing instruments, seed-machines and siege engines. His letters in German, Latin, English and other languages have been subjected to close modern scholarship. Hartlib set out with a universalist goal: "to record all human knowledge and to make it universally available for the education of all mankind".His work has been compared to modern internet search engines.
Hartlib was born in Elbing (Elbląg) in Poland. His mother was the daughter of a rich English merchant in Danzig (Gdańsk). His father is said to have been a refugee merchant from Poland. He studied at the Gymnasium in Brieg (Brzeg) and at the Albertina. He went on to Herborn Academy, where he studied under Johannes Heinrich Alsted and Johannes Bisterfeld. Although briefly at the University of Cambridge, supported by John Preston,he does not seem to have formally studied there. Hartlib met the Scottish preacher John Dury in 1628. In the same year Hartlib relocated to England, faced with the prospect of being caught in a war zone, as Imperial armies moved into the western parts of Poland and the chance of intervention by Sweden grew. He first unsuccessfully set up a school in Chichester, in line with his theories of education, and in 1630 moved permanently to London, living in Duke's Place, Holborn. An early patron was John Williams, the Bishop of Lincoln, who was leading the clerical...
In 1629 Hartlib married Mary Burmingham, daughter of Philip Burmingham; she died about 1660. They had at least six children. His family life is rather poorly documented: one useful source is the Diary of Samuel Pepys, as Pepys was a close neighbour of the Hartlib family in Axe Yard in the early 1660s and a friend of Hartlib's son Samuel Jr, a clerk in government service. Hartlib's daughter Mary married the physician and chemist Frederick Clod, or Clodius, referred to as "Doctor Clodius" in the Diary. Another daughter Anna (Nan) married the merchant, writer and preacher Johannes Roder of Utrecht in 1660, despite her lack of a dowry. Samuel Pepys, a guest at the wedding, described it as an occasion of "very great state, cost and noble company". Always the realist, Pepys thought it an excellent match for Nan: "a great fortune for her to light on, she having nothing in the world."Hartlib, having heard a good deal of this kind of gossip, indignantly denied that he had married off his dau...
Hartlib was indebted to Francis Bacon for a general theory of education that formed common ground for him and Jan Comenius. Hartlib published two studies of Comenius's work: Conatuum Comenianorum praeludia (1637) and Comenii pansophiae prodromus et didactica dissertatio (1639). He also put effort into getting Comenius, of the Protestant Moravian Brethren, to visit England. John Dury and Comenius were Hartlib's two closest correspondents. The latter had the concept of a "tree of knowledge", continually branching out and growing. He also put his own spin on Bacon's ideas. In 1640 he addressed the English Parliament with his Utopian plans involving a new commonwealth and the advancement of learning. Shortly before the English Civil War broke out, John Gaudenpreached in 1640 to Parliament, recommending that Dury and Comenius be invited to England and naming Hartlib as a likely contact. Men like Hartlib and Comenius wanted to make the spread of knowledge easier at a time when most knowle...
The "Hartlib circle" of contacts and correspondents, built up from about 1630, was one of the foundations of the Royal Society of Londonestablished a generation later. The relationship, however, is not transparent, as Hartlib and his close supporters, with the exception of William Petty, were excluded from the Royal Society when it was set up in 1660.
The utopian Description of the Famous Kingdome of Macaria appeared under Hartlib's name, but is now thought to be by Gabriel Plattes (1600–1655), a friend of his. A practical project was to establish a workhouse, as part of the Corporation of the Poor of London. This initiative is thought to have been a major influence on the later philanthropic schemes of John Bellers. In 1641, Hartlib wrote Relation of that which hath been lately attempted to procure Ecclesiastical Peace among Protestants. After Comenius left England, and in particular from 1646 onwards, the Hartlib group agitated for religious reform and toleration, against the Presbyterian dominance in the Long Parliament. They also proposed economic, technical and agricultural improvements, notably through Sir Cheney Culpeper and Henry Robinson. Benjamin Worsley, Secretary to the Council of Trade from 1650, was a Hartlibian. Hartlib valued knowledge: anything to raise crop yields or cure disease. Agriculture was a great interes...
The work of Paracelsus, a 16th-century physician and alchemist who made bold claims for his science, was also one of the inspirations to Hartlib and early chemistry. Hartlib was open-minded, and often tested the ideas and theories of his correspondents. For his own trouble with kidney stones, Hartlib took to drinking diluted sulphuric acid– an intended cure that may have contributed to his death. Hartlib was interested in theories and practices that modern science would deem irrational, or superstitious – for example, sympathetic medicine, based on the idea that things in nature that bore a resemblance to an ailment could be used to treat it. Hence a plant that looked like a snake might be used to treat snake bites, or a yellow herb to treat jaundice.
Hartlib's 25,000 plus pages of correspondence and notes appeared on CD in 1995. They are available free of charge on the web.Petty, William (1647). Advice to Hartlib – via Wikisource.H. M. Knox. "William Petty's Advice to Samuel Hartlib," British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2 (May 1953), pp. 131–142.Works by or about Samuel Hartlib at Internet ArchiveThe Correspondence of Samuel Hartlib in EMLOSamuel Hartlib at The Garden, the Ark, the Tower, and the Temple: Biblical metaphors of knowledge in early modern Europe. Published by the Museum of the History of Science at the University of Oxford.
28/09/2021 · Ida de Tosny was a royal ward and mistress of King Henry II, by whom she was mother of one of his illegitimate sons - William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, (b c. 1176-March 7, 1226). For many years, until the discovery of a charter of William mentioning "Comitissa Ida, mater mea" (engl.
08/10/2021 · Henry II, Duke of Brabant. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Henry II of Brabant (French: Henri II de Brabant, Dutch: Hendrik II van Brabant, 1207 – February 1, 1248 in Leuven) was Duke of Brabant and Lothier after the death of his father Henry I in 1235.
26/09/2021 · Season 4, episode 62 "WWE Edition" 2014–2017 Total Divas: Guest (season 2–3 & 7) Recurring (season 4–6): 20 episodes 2017 @midnight with Chris Hardwick: Season 4, 6/22/2017: 2017 Adam Ruins Everything: The Great Placeboni Season 4, episode 13 "Adam Ruins Spa Day" 2018 Wild 'n Out: Guest 2018 Jeff Ross Presents: Roast Battle Guest: 2018 ...
- Exchequer of Normandy
- Exchequer in England and Wales
- Exchequer in Scotland
- Exchequer of Ireland
- See Also
- Further Reading
The Exchequer was named after a table used to perform calculations for taxes and goods in the medieval period. According to the Dialogue concerning the Exchequer, an early medieval work describing the practice of the Exchequer, the table was large, 10 feet by 5 feet with a raised edge or "lip" on all sides of about the height of four fingers to ensure that nothing fell off it, upon which counters were placed representing various values. The name Exchequer referred to the resemblance of the table to a chess board (French: échiquier) as it was covered by a black cloth bearing green stripes of about the breadth of a human hand, in a chequer-pattern. The spaces represented pounds, shillings and pence. The term "Exchequer" then came to refer to the twice yearly meetings held at Easter and Michaelmas, at which government financial business was transacted and an audit held of sheriffs' returns.
The operation of an exchequer in Normandy is documented as early as 1180. This exchequer had broader jursidiction than the English exchequer, dealing in both fiscal and administrative matters. The Dialogue concerning the Exchequerpresents it as a general belief that the Norman kings established the Exchequer in England on the loose model of the Norman exchequer, while noting with some doubt an alternative view that the Exchequer existed in Anglo-Saxon times. The specific chronology of the two exchequers' foundings remains unknown.
It is unknown exactly when the Exchequer was established, but the earliest mention appears in a royal writ of 1110 during the reign of King Henry I. The oldest surviving Pipe Roll is that of 1130.:p.159 Pipe Rolls form a mostly continuous record of royal revenues and taxation; however, not all revenue went into the Exchequer, and some taxes and levies were never recorded in the Pipe Rolls.:p.219 Under Henry I, a procedure adopted for the audit involved the treasurer drawing up a summons to be sent to each sheriff, who was required to answer with an account of the income in his shire both from royal demesne lands and from the county farm (a form of local taxation). The chancellor of the Exchequer then questioned him concerning debts owed by private individuals.:73–74 By 1176, the 23rd year of the reign of Henry II which is the date of the Dialogue concerning the Exchequer, the Exchequer was split into two components: the purely administrative Exchequer of Receipt, which collected rev...
The Scottish Exchequer dates to around 1200, with a similar role in auditing and royal revenuesas in England. The Scottish Exchequer was slower to develop a separate judicial role; and it was not until 1584 that it became a court of law, separate from the king's council. Even then, the judicial and the administrative roles were never completely separated as with the English Exchequer. In 1707, the Exchequer Court (Scotland) Act 1707 (6 Ann. c. 53) reconstituted the Exchequer into a law court on the English model, with a lord chief baron and four barons. The court adopted English forms of procedure and had further powers added. This was done in Section 19 of the Act of Union 1707 From 1832, no new barons were appointed; their role was increasingly assumed by judges of the Court of Session. By the Exchequer Court (Scotland) Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict. c. 56), the Exchequer became a part of the Court of Session. A lord ordinary acts as a judge in Exchequer causes.The English forms of proce...
The Exchequer of Ireland developed in 1210 when King John of England reorganized the governance of his Lordship of Ireland and brought it more in line with English law. It consisted of the Superior Exchequer, a court of equity and revenue akin to the Exchequer of Pleas, and the Inferior Exchequer. The latter were the treasurers who handled all logistics from collecting the money (Teller or Cashier), logging it (Clerk of the Pells) and signing money orders accepting or paying money. It was managed by its own Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland and Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. The Court of Exchequer (Ireland) existed from about 1299 to 1877. It was abolished under the Supreme Court of Judicature Act (Ireland) 1877 and was merged, along with the Court of King's Bench (Ireland), the Court of Chancery (Ireland) and the Court of Common Pleas (Ireland), into the new High Court of Justice in Ireland (now replaced by the High Court). The Central Fund, the Republic of Ireland's equi...Keir, D. L., The Constitutional History of Modern Britain 1485–1937. Third Edition. A & C Black, 1946.Warren, W. L., The Governance of Norman and Angevin England 1086–1272. Edward Arnold, 1987. ISBN 0-7131-6378-XMadox, Thomas, 1666–1727; Fitzneale, Richard, 1130–1198; Gervasius, of Tilbury, supposed author (1711/1769), History of the ExchequerPublished 1769, etext on archive.org
15/10/2021 · You can help Wikipedia by writing articles to help lower the number of red links. ( February 2013 ) This is a list of cricketers who play Test cricket for New Zealand .