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  1. 08/05/2022 · 7 16th century 7.1 Mathematics 7.1.1 Numbers, measurement and arithmetic 7.1.2 Algebra 7.1.3 Probability and statistics 7.1.4 Numerical mathematics and algorithms 7.1.5 Notation and conventions 7.2 Physics 7.2.1 Astronomy 7.3 Biology and anatomy 7.4 Social science 7.4.1 Economics 8 17th century 9 18th century 10 19th century 11 20th century

  2. › wiki › BreechesBreeches - Wikipedia

    In the latter 16th century, breeches began to replace hose (while the German Hosen, also a plural, ousted Bruch) as the general English term for men's lower outer garments, a usage that remained standard until knee-length breeches were replaced for everyday wear by long pantaloons or trousers.

  3. › wiki › 17th_century17th century - Wikipedia

    10/05/2022 · The 17th century lasted from January 1, 1601 (), to December 31, 1700 ().It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first ...

  4. › wiki › CrocusCrocus - Wikipedia

    07/05/2022 · They arrived in Europe from Turkey in the 16th century and became valued as an ornamental flowering plant. Contents 1 Description 2 Taxonomy 2.1 History 2.2 Botanical illustration 2.3 Phylogeny 2.4 Subdivision 2.5 Similarly named species 2.6 Etymology 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Ecology 4.1 Pests and diseases 5 Cultivation 5.1 Saffron

  5. › wiki › DuelDuel - Wikipedia

    • History
    • Rules
    • Western Traditions
    • Eastern Traditions
    • See Also
    • Sources
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Early history and Middle Ages

    In Western society, the formal concept of a duel developed out of the medieval judicial duel and older pre-Christian practices such as the Viking Age holmgang. In medieval society, judicial duels were fought by knights and squires to end various disputes. Countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat took two forms in medieval society, the feat of arms and chivalric combat. The feat of arms was used to settle hostilities between two...

    Renaissance and early modern Europe

    During the early Renaissance, dueling established the status of a respectable gentlemanand was an accepted manner to resolve disputes. The first published code duello, or "code of dueling", appeared in Renaissance Italy. The first formalized national code was France's, during the Renaissance. By the 17th century, duelling had become regarded as a prerogative of the aristocracy, throughout Europe, and attempts to discourage or suppress it generally failed. For example, King Louis XIII of Franc...

    Enlightenment-era opposition

    By the late 18th century, Enlightenment era values began to influence society with new self-conscious ideas about politeness, civil behaviour and new attitudes towards violence. The cultivated art of politeness demanded that there should be no outward displays of anger or violence, and the concept of honor became more personalized. By the 1770s the practice of dueling was increasingly coming under attack from many sections of enlightened society, as a violent relic of Europe's medieval past u...

    Offense and satisfaction

    The traditional situation that led to a duel often happened after a perceived offense, whether real or imagined, when one party would demand satisfaction from the offender.One could signal this demand with an inescapably insulting gesture, such as throwing his glove before him. Usually, challenges were delivered in writing by one or more close friends who acted as "seconds". The challenge, written in formal language, laid out the real or imagined grievances and a demand for satisfaction. The...

    Field of honor

    The chief criteria for choosing the field of honor were isolation, to avoid discovery and interruption by the authorities; and jurisdictional ambiguity, to avoid legal consequences. Islands in rivers dividing two jurisdictions were popular dueling sites; the cliffs below Weehawken on the Hudson River where the Hamilton–Burr dueloccurred were a popular field of honor for New York duellists because of the uncertainty whether New York or New Jersey jurisdiction applied. Duels traditionally took...


    At the choice of the offended party, the duel could be fought to a number of conclusions: 1. To first blood, in which case the duel would be ended as soon as one man was wounded, even if the wound was minor. 2. Until one man was so severely wounded as to be physically unable to continue the duel. 3. To the death (or à l'outrance), in which case there would be no satisfaction until one party was mortally wounded. 4. In the case of pistol duels, each party would fire one shot. If neither man wa...


    Australia had a history of duelling, with the last recorded one being in Sydney between Thomas Mitchell and Stuart Donaldson (later Premier of New South Wales) in 1851. Only Donaldson's hat was damaged.


    Duels or niyuddha were held in ancient India (including modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh) for various reasons. Many kshatriya considered it shameful to die in bed, and in their old age often arranged for a yuddha-dhan, literally meaning "combat charity". According to this practice when a warrior felt he did not have much time to live, he would go along with a few attendants and ask another king for a duel or a small scale battle. In this way he chooses his own time and manner of death and i...


    Weapons and rules for dueling in the Indonesian archipelago vary from one culture to another. In Madura, dueling is known as carok and was typically practiced with the sickle or celurit. The Madurese people imbued their sickles with a khodam, a type of mythical spirit, by a way of prayer before engaging in a duel. The traditional form of dueling among the Bugis-Makassar community was called sitobo lalang lipa in which the duellists fight in a sarong. The challenger stands with a loosened saro...


    In Edo period Japan, there was a tradition of dueling (決闘?, kettō) among the samurai class.On April 14, 1612, the famous Japanese swordsman Miyamoto Musashi dueled his rival Sasaki Kojiroon the island of Funajima. Miyamoto is said to have fought over 60 duels and was never defeated.

    Baldick, Robert. The Duel: A History of Duelling. London: Chapman & Hall, 1965.
    Banks, Stephen. Duels and Duelling, Oxford: Shire, 2012.
    Banks, Stephen. A Polite Exchange of Bullets; The Duel and the English Gentleman, 1750–1850, (Woodbridge: Boydell 2010)
    Banks, Stephen. "Very little law in the case: Contests of Honour and the Subversion of the English Criminal Courts, 1780-1845" (2008) 19(3) King's Law Journal575–594.

    Marek Żukow-Karczewski (1987), Pojedynki w dawnej Polsce (Duels in the old Poland), Przekrój, 2204, 17.

    Ahn, Tom, Sandford, Jeremy, and Paul Shea. 2010. "Mend it, Don't End it: Optimal Mortality in Affairs of Honor" mimeo
    Allen, Douglas, W., and Reed, Clyde, G., 2006, "The Duel of Honor: Screening for Unobservable Social Capital," American Law and Economics Review: 1–35.
  6. › desderamona › statusRamona on Twitter

    17/05/2022 · ““In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty established a Tamil kingdom in northern #SriLanka. The Portuguese controlled the coastal areas of the island in the ...