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  1. Hulagu probablemente siempre tuvo en mente tomar Bagdad, ciudad que los mongoles querían atacar desde hacía más de diez años.Así que tomó como pretexto para atacar la ciudad el hecho de que el califa hubiera rehusado enviarle tropas que había solicitado.

    • ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ Хүлэгү
    • Nuevo título
    • هولاكو
    • Abaqa Kan
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hulagu_KhanHulagu Khan - Wikipedia

    Hulagu was born to Tolui, one of Genghis Khan's sons, and Sorghaghtani Beki, an influential Keraite princess and a niece of Toghrul in 1215. Nothing much is known of Hulagu's childhood except of an anecdote given in Jami' al-Tawarikh and he once met his grandfather Genghis Khan with Kublai in 1224.

    • Military Campaigns
    • Battle of Baghdad
    • Conquest of Syria
    • Later Campaigns
    • The Polos
    • Death
    • Legacy
    • References

    Hulagu's brother Mongke had been installed as Great Khan in 1251. In 1255, Mongke charged his brother Hulagu with leading a massive Mongol army to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia. Hulagu's campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs, a people of southern Iran; the destruction of the Hashshashin sect; the submission or destruction of the Abbasid caliphate based in Baghdad; the submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria, based in Damascus; and finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri MamlukSultanate of Egypt. Mongke ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted, and utterly destroy those who did not. Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions. Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled—by order of Mongke, two in ten fighting men in the entire empire were gathered for Hulagu's army. He easily destroyed the Lurs, and his reputation so frightened the Assassins (also know...

    The Mongol army, led by Hulagu Khan and his top general Guo Kan, set out for Baghdad in November of 1257. Hulagu demanded surrender; the caliph refused, warning the Mongols that they faced the wrath of God if they attacked the caliph. Hulagu's forces then besieged the city, which surrendered on February 10, 1258, leading to a week-long massacre by the Mongols, regarded as one of the most devastating events in the history of Islam.A surviving member of the Abbasid dynasty, Al-Mustansir fled to Egypt where the Mamluk sultan gave him refuge, where his heirs continued to claim the title caliph until the Ottoman conquest of 1517, although they did not exercise any political power.

    After Baghdad, in 1260, Mongol forces combined with those of their Christian vassals in the region, such as the army of Cilician Armenia under Hetoum I, and the Franks of Bohemond VI of Antioch. This force then conquered Muslim Syria, domain of the Ayyubid dynasty. They took together the city of Aleppo, and on March 1, 1260, under the Christian general Kitbuqa, they also took Damascus.(Grousset 1981, 581). "On 1 March Kitbuqa entered Damascus at the head of a Mongol army. With him were the King of Armenia and the Prince of Antioch. The citizens of the ancient capital of the Caliphate saw for the first time for six centuries three Christian potentates ride in triumph through their streets," (Runciman 1999, 307). A Christian Mass was celebrated in the Grand Mosque of the Umayyads (the former cathedral of Saint John the Baptist), (Richard 1996, 423) and numerous mosques were profaned. Many historical accounts describe the three Christian rulers (Hetoum, Bohemond, and Kitbuqa) entering...

    Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, after the succession was finally settled with his brother Kublai Khan established as Great Khan. But when Hulagu massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge the defeat at Ain Jalut, he was instead drawn into civil war with Batu Khan's brother Berke. Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu's sack of Baghdad, and allied himself with the Mamluks. He initiated a series of raids on Hulagu's territories, led by Nogai Khan. Hulagu suffered a severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. This was the first open war between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire.

    Niccolò and Maffeo Polo reportedly traveled to the realm of Hulagu and stayed in the city of Bukhara, in modern day Uzbekistan, where the family lived and traded for three years from 1261 to 1264. Nicolò and Maffeo then joined up with an embassy sent by Hulagu to his brother, the Great Khan Kublai. In 1266, the Polos reached the seat of the Great Khan in the Mongol capital Khanbaliq, present day Beijing, China. They reportedly remained there many years, until in 1291 sent on a mission by Kublai to escort a 17-year-old princess bride, Kököchin, to Arghun Khan, Hulagu's grandson.

    Hulagu Khan died in 1265 and was buried in the Kaboudi Island in Lake Urmia. His funeral was the only Ilkhanid funeral to feature human sacrifice (Morgan 1986, 139). He was succeeded by his son Abaqa, thus establishing his line.

    Hulagu Khan laid the foundations of the Ilkhanate State, and by doing so paved the way for the later Safavid dynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran. Hulagu's conquests also opened Iran to both Europe influence from the west and Chineseinfluence from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran's distinctive excellence in architecture. The Polos set out along the Silk Road during his rule; their journey substantially contributed to East-West cultural exchange. The dynasty unified much of Iran following several-hundred years of political fragmentation. Adopting Islam, they oversaw what has been described as a Renaissance in Iran. Oscillatting between Sunni and Shi'a Islam the latter would become the state religion after the beginning of the Safavid dynasty. Although the Khanate disintegrated, it brought stability to the region for about a century. Their rule is usually dated from 1256 to 1353. Under Hulagu's dynasty, Iranian histor...

    Arberry, A.J., and John Andrew Boyle. 2007. The Saljuq and Mongol periods. The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. 5. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521069366.
    Atwood, Christopher Pratt. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol empire. New York, NY: Facts On File. ISBN 9780816046713.
    Delcourt, Thierry. 2007. Les croisades: la plus grande aventure du moyen âge. Paris, FR: Nouveau monde. ISBN 9782847362596.
    Grousset, René. 1981. La reine Mélisende, la deuxième croisade et Beaudouin III: 1143 - 1163. Histoire des croisades et du royaume franc de Jérusalem / René Grousset, T. 4. Paris, FR: Tallander. IS...
    • Primera Campaña Militar
    • Campaña de Siria
    • Campañas subsiguientes
    • deceso

    En 1255, Hulagu fue enviado por su hermano Möngke (quien fue Gran Kan de 1251 a 1258) a conquistar o destruir los estados musulmanes del suroccidente asiático. La campaña de Hulagu tenía como objetivo la subyugación de los luros, un pueblo del sur de Irán; la destrucción de la secta de los nizaríes; la sumisión o destrucción del Califato Abbasí; la sumisión o destrucción de los estados de la dinastía ayubí en Siria; y finalmente, la sumisión o destrucción de los mamelucos de Egipto.[3] Hulagu partió con el que quizá fuese el mayor ejército mongol que se haya reunido, ya que por órdenes de Möngke, uno de cada diez hombres en condiciones de pelear, en todo el Imperio mongol, pasó a formar parte del ejército de Hulagu.[4] Así, con facilidad sometió a los luros, y su reputación impresionó tanto a los nizaríes (la famosa "secta de los asesinos") que rindieron su fortaleza de Alamutsin resistirse.

    Luego de la victoria en Bagdad, en 1260, los mongoles unieron sus fuerzas con la de sus vasallos cristianos en la región, como es el caso del reino armenio de Cilicia y los francos liderados por Bohemundo VI de Antioquía. Juntos conquistaron Siria, dominio de la dinastía ayubí; tomaron la ciudad de Alepo y el 1 de marzo de 1260, liderados por el general Kitbuqa,[5] la ciudad de Damasco.[6] [7] Algunos relatos históricos describen las celebraciones cristianas que se realizaron tras la conquista de Damasco,[8] aunque algunos historiadores modernos han asegurado que tales historias son apócrifas.[9] Se celebró una misa en la mezquita Omeya de Damasco (que antes había sido la catedral de San Juan el Bautista),[10]y algunas mezquitas fueron profanadas. Esta invasión definitivamente destruyó la dinastía ayubí, que había dominado parte del Levante, Egipto y Arabia. El último gobernante ayubí, An-Nasir Yusuf, murió a manos de Hulagu en 1260.[11]Como Bagdad y Damasco habían sido capturadas,...

    Hulagu regresó a sus dominios a mediados de 1262, cuando se solucionó la disputa sucesoria. No obstante, en vez de vengar sus derrotas, se vio involucrado en una guerra civil con Berke, hermano de Batu Kan y líder de la Horda Azul. Berke Kan, quien se había convertido al islam, prometió vengar el saqueo de Bagdad, y se alió con los mamelucos.

    Hulagu murió en 1265 y fue enterrado en la isla Kaboudi en el Lago Urmía. Fue sucedido por su hijo Abaqa. Durante el siglo XIII se puso de moda en Occidente aquello que estuviera relacionado con los mongoles, al punto que algunos recién nacidos en Italia fueron llamados como gobernantes mongoles; por ejemplo Can Grande (Gran Kan), Alaone (Hulagu), Argone (Arghun) y Cassano (Ghazan).[22]

  3. Hulagu probablemente siempre tuvo en mente tomar Bagdad, ciudad que los mongoles querían atacar desde hacía más de diez años.Así que tomó como pretexto para atacar la ciudad el hecho de que el califa hubiera rehusado enviarle tropas que había solicitado.

    • 8 de febrero de 1265 jul.Maraghe ( Irán)
    • Nuevo título
    • 1217
    • Abaqa Kan
  4. Hulagu Khan sentó las bases del Ilkhanate y así allanó el camino para el posterior estado dinástico safávida y, en última instancia, el país moderno de Irán. Las conquistas de Hulagu también abrieron Irán tanto a la influencia europea del oeste como a la influencia china del este.

  5. Hulagu Khan and his general, Guo Kan, led their forces to Baghdad in November 1257. Hulagu asked Baghdad to surrender. However, the caliph, Al-Musta'sim, refused to do so and stated that the Mongols would face the wrath of God if they attacked him. Following this, Hulagu's army attacked the city.

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