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  1. guillermo iii de inglaterra ( la haya, 14 de noviembre de 1650 - palacio de kensington, 8 de marzo de 1702) fue un aristócrata neerlandés y príncipe protestante de orange desde su nacimiento, y rey de inglaterra e irlanda —como guillermo iii— desde el 13 de febrero de 1688, y rey de escocia —como guillermo ii— desde el 11 de abril de 1689, en …

    • Early Life
    • Early Offices
    • Becoming Stadtholder
    • Glorious Revolution
    • Rule with Mary II
    • Later Years
    • Death
    • Legacy
    • Titles, Styles, and Arms
    • See Also

    Birth and family

    William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650.[b] Baptised William Henry (Dutch: Willem Hendrik), he was the only child of Mary, Princess Royal, and stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange. His mother was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and sister of King Charles II and King James II and VII. Eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox; thus William was the sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of hi...

    Childhood and education

    William's mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. William's education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard and the Scottish noblewoman, Lady Anna Mackenzie. From April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remon...

    Exclusion from stadtholdership

    After the death of William's father, most provinces had left the office of stadtholder vacant. At the demand of Oliver Cromwell, the Treaty of Westminster, which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War, had a secret annexe that required the Act of Seclusion, which forbade the province of Holland from appointing a member of the House of Orange as stadtholder. After the English Restoration, the Act of Seclusion, which had not remained a secret for long, was declared void as the English Commonwealth (wi...

    Conflict with republicans

    In November 1670, William obtained permission to travel to England to urge Charles to pay back at least a part of the 2,797,859 guilder debt the House of Stuart owed the House of Orange. Charles was unable to pay, but William agreed to reduce the amount owed to 1,800,000 guilders. Charles found his nephew to be a dedicated Calvinist and patriotic Dutchman, and reconsidered his desire to show him the Secret Treaty of Dover with France, directed at destroying the Dutch Republic and installing W...

    "Disaster year": 1672

    For the Dutch Republic, 1672 proved calamitous. It became known as the Rampjaar ("disaster year"), because in the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War the Netherlands was invaded by France and its allies: England, Münster, and Cologne. Although the Anglo-French fleet was disabled by the Battle of Solebay, in June the French army quickly overran the provinces of Gelderland and Utrecht. On 14 June, William withdrew with the remnants of his field army into Holland, where the States had...

    Marriage

    During the war with France, William tried to improve his position by marrying in 1677, his first cousin Mary, elder surviving daughter of the Duke of York, later King James II of England (James VII of Scotland). Mary was eleven years his junior and he anticipated resistance to a Stuart match from the Amsterdam merchants who had disliked his mother (another Mary Stuart), but William believed that marrying Mary would increase his chances of succeeding to Charles's kingdoms, and would draw Engla...

    Peace with France, intrigue with England

    By 1678, Louis XIV sought peace with the Dutch Republic. Even so, tensions remained: William remained suspicious of Louis, thinking that the French king desired "universal kingship" over Europe; Louis described William as "my mortal enemy" and saw him as an obnoxious warmonger. France's annexations in the Southern Netherlands and Germany (the Réunion policy) and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, caused a surge of Huguenot refugees to the Republic. This led William III to join var...

    Invasion of England

    William at first opposed the prospect of invasion, but most historians now agree that he began to assemble an expeditionary force in April 1688, as it became increasingly clear that France would remain occupied by campaigns in Germany and Italy, and thus unable to mount an attack while William's troops would be occupied in Britain. Believing that the English people would not react well to a foreign invader, he demanded in a letter to Rear-Admiral Arthur Herbert that the most eminent English P...

    Proclaimed king

    William summoned a Convention Parliament in England, which met on 22 January 1689, to discuss the appropriate course of action following James's flight. William felt insecure about his position; though his wife preceded him in the line of succession to the throne, he wished to reign as king in his own right, rather than as a mere consort. The only precedent for a joint monarchy in England dated from the 16th century, when Queen Mary I married Philip of Spain. Philip remained king only during...

    Revolution settlement

    William encouraged the passage of the Toleration Act 1689, which guaranteed religious toleration to Protestant nonconformists. It did not, however, extend toleration as far as he wished, still restricting the religious liberty of Roman Catholics, non-trinitarians, and those of non-Christian faiths. In December 1689, one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights, was passed. The Act, which restated and confirmed many provisions of the earlier Declara...

    Jacobite resistance

    Although most in Britain accepted William and Mary as sovereigns, a significant minority refused to acknowledge their claim to the throne, instead believing in the divine right of kings, which held that the monarch's authority derived directly from God rather than being delegated to the monarch by Parliament. Over the next 57 years Jacobites pressed for restoration of James and his heirs. Nonjurors in England and Scotland, including over 400 clergy and several bishops of the Church of England...

    Parliament and faction

    Although the Whigs were William's strongest supporters, he initially favoured a policy of balance between the Whigs and Tories. The Marquess of Halifax, a man known for his ability to chart a moderate political course, gained William's confidence early in his reign. The Whigs, a majority in Parliament, had expected to dominate the government, and were disappointed that William denied them this chance.This "balanced" approach to governance did not last beyond 1690, as the conflicting factions...

    War in Europe

    William continued to absent himself from Britain for extended periods during his Nine Years' War (1688–1697) against France, leaving each spring and returning to England each autumn. England joined the League of Augsburg, which then became known as the Grand Alliance.Whilst William was away fighting, his wife, Mary II, governed the realm, but acted on his advice. Each time he returned to England, Mary gave up her power to him without reservation, an arrangement that lasted for the rest of Mar...

    Mary II died of smallpox on 28 December 1694, leaving William III to rule alone. William deeply mourned his wife's death. Despite his conversion to Anglicanism, William's popularity in England plummeted during his reign as a sole monarch.

    In 1702, William died of pneumonia, a complication from a broken collarbone following a fall from his horse, Sorrel. It was rumoured that the horse had been confiscated from Sir John Fenwick, one of the Jacobites who had conspired against William. Because his horse had stumbled into a mole's burrow, many Jacobites toasted "the little gentleman in t...

    William's primary achievement was to contain France when it was in a position to impose its will across much of Europe. His life's aim was largely to oppose Louis XIV of France. This effort continued after his death during the War of the Spanish Succession. Another important consequence of William's reign in England involved the ending of a bitter ...

    Titles and styles

    1. 4 November 1650 – 9 July 1672: His HighnessThe Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau 2. 9–16 July 1672: His Highness The Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland 3. 16 July 1672 – 26 April 1674: His Highness The Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland 4. 26 April 1674 – 13 February 1689: His Highness The Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel 5. 13 February 1689 – 8 March 1702: His MajestyThe King By 1674, William was fully styled as...

    Arms

    As Prince of Orange, William's coat of arms was: Quarterly, I Azure billetty a lion rampant Or (for Nassau); II Or a lion rampant guardant Gules crowned Azure (Katzenelnbogen); III Gules a fess Argent (Vianden), IV Gules two lions passant guardant Or, armed and langued azure (Dietz); between the I and II quarters an inescutcheon, Or a fess Sable (Moers); at the fess point an inescutcheon, quarterly I and IV Gules, a bend Or (Châlons); II and III Or a bugle horn Azure, stringed Gules (Orange)...

  2. Guillermo III de Arborea (?-1424), vizconde de Narbona, juez de Arborea, conde de Goceano y vizconde de Bas. Guillermo III de Orange (1650-1702), rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda y estatúder de las Provincias Unidas. Guillermo III de los Países Bajos (1817-1890), rey de los Países Bajos y gran duque de Luxemburgo. Categoría:

    • Primeros años
    • Entrada Na Política
    • Ascensu Al Tronu D'inglaterra
    • Reináu
    • Gobiernu
    • Últimos años Y Socesión
    • Enllaces Esternos

    Guillermu nació en L'Haya, el 14 de payares de 1650, siendo l'únicu fíu de Guillermu II, príncipe d'Orange-Nassau, y de María Estuardo, Princess Royal. Ocho díes enantes de nacer, el 6 de payares, el so padre morrió víctima de viruelas; asina, Guillermu asocedió-y como príncipe soberanu d'Orange dende'l mesmu momentu de nacer. El 23 d'avientu de 16...

    Cuando Guillermu cumplió 16 años en 1666, los Estaos Xenerales de les Provincies Xuníes diéronlu oficialmente un puestu na sala del gobiernu, o como Guillermu mesmu dixo, fixéron-y un Neñu del Estáu. Esto fixo supuestamente pa preparar a Guillermu pal gobiernu de la nación, anque nun s'especificó cuál sería esti papel. Cuando'l so tiempu na sala de...

    Guillermu oponíase de primeres al proyeutu d'invasión. Mentanto, n'Inglaterra, la segunda esposa de Xacobu II, la reina María de Módena, dio a lluz un fíu, Xacobu Francisco Eduardo, que movía Ana, la esposa de Guillermu, de la primer llinia de la socesión. La roxura pública tamién aumentó debíu al xuiciu de siete obispos que s'opunxeren en públicu ...

    Una Convención Parllamentaria convocada en 1689 pol príncipe d'Orange abrió la sesión, y dio empiezu un discutiniu referente a la llinia de conducta que tenía de siguise. Guillermu III sentíase inseguru na so posición; anque solamente la so esposa yera formalmente elegible p'asumir el tronu, él deseyaba reinar como rei por mesmu derechu, en llugar ...

    Guillermu tuvo ausente del reinu llargos periodos mientres la guerra con Francia. Inglaterra xunir a la Lliga de Augsburgu, qu'entós yera conocida como la Gran Alianza. Mientres Guillermu taba ausente batallando, la so esposa, María II, gobernó nel so llugar, pero siempres siguiendo los sos conseyos. Cada vez qu'él volvía a Inglaterra, María faíase...

    L'heriedu español, sicasí, nun yera l'únicu problema que-y esmolecía a Guillermu. La so unión con María II nun-y diera fíos, y él nun paecía bien inclináu a volvese a casar. La hermana de María, la princesa Ana, tuviera numberosos embaranzos, pero tolos sos fíos morrieren al nacer o a los pocos años d'edá. La muerte de Guillermu, duque de Glouceste...

    Wikimedia Commons tien conteníu multimedia tocante a Guillermu III d'Inglaterra.
    ↑ URL de la referencia: http://one-evil.org/content/people_18c_william_iii.html.
    ↑ URL de la referencia: http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/30303.
    ↑ 3,0 3,1 Afirmao en: Gemeinsame Normdatei. Data de consulta: 26 abril 2014. Autor: Biblioteca Nacional d'Alemaña.
  3. Guillermo III nació en La Haya en la República Holandesa el 4 de noviembre de 1650. Bautizado William Henry (en holandés : Willem Hendrik ), era el único hijo de María, Princesa Real y el estadista Guillermo II, Príncipe de Orange. .

  4. En Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda, reinó junto a su esposa, María II, hasta la muerte de ella el 28 de diciembre de 1694. Entre los actuales unionistas de Irlanda del Norte se le conoce con el apodo de rey Billy. Guillermo III fue nombrado estatúder de los Países Bajos el 28 de junio de 1672 y permaneció en el cargo hasta su muerte.