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  1. Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Congress Poland and Grand Duke of Finland, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917.

  2. Nicholas II: the life and reign of Russia's last monarch (en inglés). Praeger. pp. 344. ISBN 9780275958329. Enlaces externos. Wikimedia Commons alberga una categoría multimedia sobre Nicolás II de Rusia. Vídeo de los restos de los Románov y otros antecedentes (en inglés)

  3. Nicholas II of Russia, (May 18, 1868 – July 17, 1918) was the last Tsar of the Russian Empire. He became Tsar in 1894 after his father, Tsar Alexander III died. His reign lasted until the 1917 Russian Revolution .

  4. Category:Nicholas II of Russia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The main article for this category is Nicholas II of Russia. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicholas II of Russia.

  5. Abdication of Nicholas II was a manifesto of the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II, signed in Pskov on 2 March / 15 March 1917, in the midst of World War I and the February Revolution. The Emperor renounced the throne of the Russian Empire on behalf of himself and his son, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich. The next day the Grand Duke refused to accept the imperial authority, stating that he would accept it only if that was the ...

  6. 17/10/2021 · Category:Nicholas II of Russia. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Nicolás II de Rusia (es); Nikulás 2. (is); Nicholas II dari Rusia (ms); Николай II (os); Nicholas II of Russia (en-gb); Николай II (bg); II.

    • Early Life and Road to Power
    • Emperor and Principles
    • Culture
    • Minorities Under Nicholas I
    • Military and Foreign Policy
    • Death
    • Legacy
    • Titles, Styles and Honours
    • See Also
    • References

    Nicholas was born at Gatchina Palace in Gatchina to Grand Duke Paul, and Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna of Russia (née Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg). Five months after his birth, his grandmother, Catherine the Great, died and his parents became emperor and empress of Russia. He was a younger brother of Emperor Alexander I of Russia, who succeeded to the throne in 1801, and of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia. Riasanovsky says he was, "the most handsome man in Europe, but also a charmer who enjoyed feminine company and was often at his best with the men." In 1800, at the age of four years, Nicholas was named Grand Prior of Russia and entitled to wear the Maltese cross. On 13 July 1817, Nicholas married Princess Charlotte of Prussia (1798–1860), who thereafter went by the name Alexandra Feodorovna when she converted to Orthodoxy. Charlotte's parents were Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Nicholas and Charlotte were third cousins, as they...

    Early reign

    Nicholas completely lacked his brother's spiritual and intellectual breadth; he saw his role simply as that of a paternal autocrat ruling his people by whatever means necessary. Nicholas I began his reign on 14 December 1825 (old style), which fell on a Monday; Russian superstition held that Mondays were unlucky days. This particular Monday dawned very cold, with temperatures of −8 degrees Celsius. This was regarded by the Russian people as a bad omen for the coming reign. The accession of Ni...

    Local policies

    Tsar Nicholas abolished several areas of local autonomy. Bessarabia's autonomy was removed in 1828, Poland's in 1830 and the Jewish Qahal was abolished in 1843. As an exception to this trend, Finland was able to keep its autonomy partly due to Finnish soldiers' loyal participation in crushing the November Uprisingin Poland. Russia's first railway was open in 1837, a 26 km (16 mi) line between St. Petersburg and the suburban residence of Tsarskoye Selo. The second was the Saint Petersburg – Mo...

    The official emphasis on Russian nationalism fueled a debate on Russia's place in the world, the meaning of Russian history, and the future of Russia.[citation needed] One group, the westernizers, believed that Russia remained backward and primitive and could progress only through more Europeanization. Another group, the Slavophiles, enthusiastically favored the Slavs and their culture and customs, and had a distaste for westernersand their culture and customs. The Slavophiles viewed Slavic philosophy as a source of wholeness in Russia and were sceptical of Western rationalism and materialism. Some of them believed that the Russian peasant commune, or Mir, offered an attractive alternative to Western capitalism and could make Russia a potential social and moral savior, thus representing a form of Russian messianism. However the ministry of education had a policy of closing philosophy faculties because of possible harmful effects. In the wake of the Decembrist revolt, the tsar moved...

    Life of Jews under Nicholas I

    In 1851 the Jewish population numbered at 2.4 million with 212,000 of them living in Russian controlled Poland territory. This made them one of the largest inorodtsyminorities in the Russian Empire. On 26 August 1827 the edict of military conscription ("Ustav rekrutskoi povinnosti") was introduced, which required Jewish boys to serve in the Russian military for 25 years from the age of 18. Before that many of them were forcibly conscripted into Cantonist schools since the age of 12, while bei...

    Nicolas' aggressive foreign policy involved many expensive wars, having a disastrous effect on the empire's finances.[citation needed] Nicholas lavished attention on his very large army; of a population of 60–70 million people, the army counted one million men. They had outdated equipment and tactics, but the tsar, who dressed like a soldier and surrounded himself with officers, gloried in the victory over Napoleon in 1812 and took enormous pride in its smartness on parade. The cavalry horses, for example, were only trained in parade formations, and did poorly in battle. The glitter and braid masked profound weaknesses that he did not see. He put generals in charge of most of his civilian agencies regardless of their qualifications. An agnosticwho won fame in cavalry charges was made supervisor of Church affairs. The Army became the vehicle of upward social mobility for noble youths from non-Russian areas, such as Poland, the Baltic, Finland, and Georgia. On the other hand, many mis...

    Nicholas died on 2 March 1855, during the Crimean War, at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. He caught a chill, refused medical treatment and died of pneumonia, although there were rumors he was committing a passive suicide by refusing treatment. He was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedralin St. Petersburg. He reigned for 30 years, and was succeeded by his son Alexander II.

    There have been many damning verdicts on Nicholas' rule and legacy. At the end of his life, one of his most devoted civil servants, A.V. Nikitenko, opined, "the main failing of the reign of Nicholas Pavlovich was that it was all a mistake."However, from time to time, efforts are made to revive Nicholas's reputation. Historian Barbara Jelavich, on the other hand, points to many failures, including the "catastrophic state of Russian finances," the badly equipped army, the inadequate transportation system, and a bureaucracy "which was characterized by graft, corruption, and inefficiency." Kiev Universitywas founded in 1834 by Nicholas. In 1854, there were 3600 university students in Russia, 1000 fewer than in 1848. Censorship was omnipresent; historian Hugh Seton-Watson says, "the intellectual atmosphere remained oppressive until the end of the reign." As a traveler in Spain, Italy and Russia, the Frenchman Marquis de Custine said in his widely read book Empire of the Czar: A Journey T...

    Titles and styles

    1. 6 July 1796 – 1 December 1825: His Imperial HighnessGrand Duke Nicholas Pavlovich of Russia 2. 1 December 1825 – 2 March 1855: His Imperial MajestyThe Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

    The first draft of this article was taken with little editing from the Library of Congress Federal Research Division's Country Studies series. As their home page at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/csh...
    This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Russia: A country study. Federal Research Division.
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