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  1. › wiki › PolandPoland - Wikipedia

    Poland,[b]officially the Republic of Poland,[c]is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, covering an area of 312,696 km2(120,733 sq mi). Poland has a population of over 38 million and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union.[12]

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    Early history

    The first sign of humans in Polish lands was 500,000 years ago. The Bronze Age started around 2400-2300 BC. The Iron Age started around 750-700 BC. At that time the Polish lands were under the influence of the Lusatian culture. About 400 BC Celtic and Germanic tribes lived there. Those people had trade contacts with the Roman Empire. Over time, Slavs came to Polish lands. Some of those Slavs, now commonly referred to as Western Slavs (though in reality a diverse group of tribes with shared et...

    Piast and Jagiellon dynasties

    Poland began to form a country around the middle of the 10th century in the Piast dynasty. In 966, Prince Mieszko I became a Christian, and so the Polish people also became Christians. The next king was Bolesław I of Poland (called Bolesław the Brave). He conquered many lands and he became the first King of Poland. Casimir I of Poland changed the Polish capital from Gniezno to Kraków. In the 12th century, Poland broke into some smaller states after the death of King Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1...

    Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to Second Republic of Poland

    In the 17th century Sweden attacked almost all of Poland (this was called “the Deluge”). Many wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Cossacks, Transylvania and Brandenburg-Prussia ended in 1699. For the next 80 years, the government and the nation were weak, making Poland dependent on Russia. Russian tsars took advantage of this by offering money to dishonest members of the Polish government, who would block new ideas and solutions. Russia, Prussia, and Austria broke Poland into three piece...

    Poland's territory is a plain reaching from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Carpathian Mountainsin the south. Within that plain, the land varies from east to west. The Polish Baltic coast is mostly smooth but has natural harbors in the Gdańsk-Gdynia region and Szczecin in the far northwest. This coast has several spits, dunes, and coastal lakes....

    Almost no Polish literature remains before Christianisation in the 10th century. Polish literature was written in the Latin language during the Middle Ages. The Polish language was accepted as equal to Latin after the Renaissancefor literature. Jan Kochanowski was a leading poet of European Renaissance literature in the 16th century. Other great Po...

    In the past, Poland was inhabited by people from different nations and of different religions (mainly Catholics, Orthodox and Judaism). This changed after 1939, because of the Nazi Holocaust which killed many Polish Jews. After World War II, the country was changed into a communist country, by the Warsaw Pact which included most central European co...

    Nicolaus Copernicus, an astronomer who showed that the Earth moves around the Sun.
    Maria Skłodowska-Curie discovered radium and polonium. - Polish national portal Archived 2008-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
    Poland at the World Factbook Archived 2019-08-18 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Poland, pueblo en el condado de Chautauqua, estado de Nueva York. Personas Alfred Poland, cirujano británico del siglo XIX. Chris Poland, músico de rock y jazz conocido por haber pertenecido y grabado tres álbumes de la banda de thrash metal Megadeth. Otros usos

  3. The Lechitic Western Polans, a tribe whose name means "people living in open fields", dominated the region and gave Poland - which lies in the North-Central European Plain - its name . The first ruling dynasty, the Piasts, emerged in the 10th century AD.

    • Overview
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    • Hydrology

    Poland is a country that extends across the North European Plain from the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains in the south to the sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in the north. Poland is the fifth-most populous country of the European Union and the ninth-largest country in Europe by area. The territory of Poland covers approximately 312,696 km2, of whi...

    The country extends 649 kilometers from north to south and 689 kilometers from east to west. The total area is 312,696 square kilometres, including inland waters. The average elevation is 173 meters, and only 3% of Polish territory, along the southern border, is elevated higher than 500 meters. The country's highest peak is Mount Rysy, which rises ...

    The geological structure of Poland has been shaped by the continental collision of Europe and Africa over the past 60 million years on the one hand and the other by the Quaternary glaciations of northern Europe. Both processes shaped the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains. The moraine landscape of northern Poland contains soils made up mostly of ...

    Poland is the fourth most forested country in Europe. Forests cover about 30.5% of Poland's land area based on international standards. Its overall percentage is still increasing. Forests of Poland are managed by the National Program of Reforestation, aiming an increase of forest-coverage to 33% in 2050. The richness of Polish forests is more than ...

    Phytogeographically, Poland belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Poland belongs to three Palearctic Ecoregions of the continental forest spanning Central and Northern European temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregions as wel...

    The longest rivers are the Vistula, 1,047 kilometres long; the Oder which forms part of Poland's western border, 854 kilometres long; its tributary, the Warta, 808 kilometres long; and the Bug, a tributary of the Vistula, 772 kilometres long. The Vistula and the Oder flow into the Baltic Sea, as do numerous smaller rivers in Pomerania. The Łyna and...

  4. 1 Establishment of communist-ruled Poland (1944–1948) 1.1 Border and population shifts 1.2 Rebuilding of infrastructure and economy 1.3 Consolidation of communist power 1.4 Rigged elections, defeat of Mikołajczyk 1.5 Polish United Workers' Party and its rule 2 Stalinist era (1948–1956) 2.1 Removal of Gomułka, Stalinist repressions