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  1. James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own ...

  2. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He was the first monarch to be called the king of Great Britain. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 until his death and he ruled in England and Scotland from 24 March 1603 until his death.

    • 24 March 1603 – 27 March 1625
    • Charles I
  3. James VI and I was baptised Roman Catholic, but brought up Presbyterian and leaned Anglican during his rule. He was a lifelong Protestant , but had to cope with issues surrounding the many religious views of his era, including Anglicanism , Presbyterianism , Roman Catholicism and differing opinions of several English Separatists .

    • Theory of Monarchy
    • King and Parliament
    • "The Great Contract"
    • The Spanish Match

    In 1597–8, James wrote two works, The Trew Law of Free Monarchies and Basilikon Doron (Royal Gift), in which he established an ideological base for monarchy. In the Trew Law, he sets out the divine right of kings, explaining that for Biblical reasons kings are higher beings than other men, though "the highest bench is the sliddriest to sit upon". The document proposes an absolutist theory of monarchy, by which a king may impose new laws by royal prerogative but must also pay heed to tradition and to God, who would "stirre up such scourges as pleaseth him, for punishment of wicked kings". Basilikon Doron, written as a book of instruction for the four-year-old Prince Henry, provides a more practical guide to kingship. Despite banalities and sanctimonious advice, the work is well written, perhaps the best example of James's prose. James's advice concerning parliaments, which he understood as merely the king's "head court", foreshadows his difficulties with the English Commons: "Hold no...

    James's difficulties with his first parliament in 1604 ended the initial euphoria of his succession. On 7 July, he prorogued the parliament, having achieved his aims neither for the full union nor for the obtaining of funds. "I will not thank where I feel no thanks due," he remarked in his closing speech. "...I am not of such a stock as to praise fools...You see how many things you did not well...I wish you would make use of your liberty with more modesty in time to come". The parliament of 1604 may be seen as shaping the attitudes of both sides for the rest of the reign, though the difficulties owed more to mutual incomprehension than conscious enmity. On the eve of the state opening of the next parliamentary session on 5 November 1605, a soldier called Guy Fawkes was discovered in the cellars of the parliament buildings guarding a pile of slaves, not far from about twenty barrels of gunpowder with which he intended to blow up Parliament House the following day and cause the destru...

    As James's reign progressed, his government faced growing financial pressures. Some of those resulted from creeping inflation and the decreasing purchasing power of the royal income, but James's profligacy and financial incompetence substantially contributed to the mounting debt. Salisbury took over the reins as Lord Treasurer himself in 1608 and, with the backing of the Privy Council, introduced a programme of economic reforms which steadily drove down the deficit. In an attempt to convince James to curb his extravagance, he wrote a series of frank tracts on the matter, and he tried to induce the king to grant limited pensions to his courtiers, rather than showering them with random gifts. A believer in the necessity of parliamentary contribution to government, Salisbury proposed to the Commons, in February 1610, an ambitious financial scheme, known as The Great Contract, whereby Parliament would grant a lump sum of £600,000 to pay off the king's debts in return for ten royal conce...

    Another potential source of income was the prospect of a Spanish dowry from a marriage between Charles, Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, Maria. The policy of the Spanish Match, as it was called, was supported by the Howards and other Catholic-leaning ministers and diplomats—together known as the Spanish Party—but deeply distrusted in Protestant England, a sentiment voiced vociferously in the Commons when James finally called a parliament in 1621 to raise funds for a military expedition in support of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. By the 1620s, events on the continent had stirred up anti-Catholic feeling to a new pitch. A conflict had broken out between the Catholic Holy Roman Empire and the Protestant Bohemians, who had deposed the emperor as their king and elected James's son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, in his place, triggering the Thirty Years' War. James reluctantly summoned parliament as the only means to raise the funds necessary to assist his daughter Elizab...

    • Overview
    • Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox
    • Anne of Denmark
    • Anne Murray
    • Children
    • Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset

    The personal relationships of James VI and I included relationships with his male courtiers and his marriage to Anne of Denmark, with whom he fathered children. The influence his favourites had on politics, and the resentment at the wealth they acquired, became major political issues during the reign of James VI and I. James did not know his parents — his father, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was murdered in 1567, and his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, was forced to flee when she married the...

    At the age of 13, James made his formal entry into Edinburgh. Upon arriving he met the 37-year-old, married, father of 5 children, Franco-Scottish lord Esmé Stewart, 6th Lord d'Aubigny, whom the Puritan leader Sir James Melville described as "of nature, upright, just, and gentle". Having arrived from France, Stewart was an exotic visitor who fascinated the young James. The two became extremely close and it was said by an English observer that "from the time he was 14 years old and no more, that

    Following Esme's death James married Anne of Denmark in 1589 to establish a strong Protestant alliance in Continental Europe, a policy he continued by marrying his daughter to the future King of Bohemia. James was initially said to be infatuated with his wife and gallantly crossed the North Sea with a royal retinue to collect her after Anne's initial efforts to sail to England were thwarted by storms. The king, however, was unfaithful to her with Anne Murray and the relationship later cooled and

    Between 1593 and 1595, James was romantically linked with Anne Murray, later Lady Glamis, whom he addressed in verse as "my mistress and my love" in a poem he wrote called Ane dreame on his Mistris the Lady Glammis. She was the daughter of John Murray, 1st Earl of Tullibardine, master of the king's household. Anne also had different names, particularly in official documents such as those that discussed her marriage to Lord Glamis. She was referred to as Agnes and Annas Murray of Tullibardine.

    Three of James's children grew to adulthood: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, Elizabeth of Bohemia and Charles I of England. Henry died from typhoid fever at the age of 18. Elizabeth, at the age of 16, married Frederick V, then Elector of the Electorate of the Palatinate, and took up her place in the court at Heidelberg. Charles grew up in the shadow of his elder brother, but following Henry's death he became heir to the throne, and succeeded his father in 1625.

    A few years later after the controversy over his relationship with Lennox faded away he began a relationship with Robert Carr. In 1607, at a royal jousting contest, the 17-year-old Carr, the son of Sir Thomas Carr or Kerr of Ferniehirst, was knocked from a horse and broke his leg. According to Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, James fell in love with the young man, and as the years progressed showered Carr with gifts. Carr was made a gentleman of the bedchamber and he was noted for his handsom

  4. James VI and I (1566−1625) — as King James VI of the Kingdom of Scotland (1567−1625), and as King James I of the Kingdom of England and Ireland (1603−1625). For the preceding Scottish monarch, see Category: Mary, Queen of Scots. See also the preceding Category:Elizabeth I and the succeeding Category:Charles I of England.

    • Primeros años
    • Gobierno Personal en Escocia
    • El Trono Inglés
    • Semblanza Del Rey
    • Tratamiento Y Títulos
    • Descendencia
    • Referencias
    • Véase también
    • Enlaces Externos

    Nacimiento

    Jacobo fue el único hijo de María I Estuardo, reina de Escocia, y de su segundo marido Enrique Estuardo, Lord Darnley, duque de Albany, al que sus contemporáneos tildaban de atolondrado, cobarde y pretencioso. Descendía directamente del rey Enrique VII de Inglaterra a través de su bisabuela Margarita Tudor, hija de este monarca y hermana de Enrique VIII.[12]​ El dominio de María Estuardo sobre Escocia fue inseguro, tanto para ella como para su marido, y por ser católicos se encontraron con un...

    Regencias

    El cuidado de Jacobo fue confiado al conde y la condesa de Mar para ser protegido, criado y educado[18]​ en la seguridad del castillo de Stirling.[19]​ El niño fue solemnemente coronado a los 13 meses de edad como Jacobo VI de Escocia en la iglesia de Holyrood, en el castillo de Stirling, el 29 de julio de 1567.[15]​ El sermón corrió a cargo del calvinista escocés John Knox. Y aunque el monarca había sido bautizado católico, de acuerdo a los dictados de la clase dirigente fue educado en la má...

    Aunque Jacobo ya era mayor de edad, el control del gobierno seguía en manos de favoritos y nobles. Lord Arran se inclinó hacia el Anglicanismo, ganándose así el odio de la nobleza calvinista, mientras que Lennox, aunque convertido al protestantismo, era contemplado con recelo por los nobles, que advirtieron las frecuentes demostraciones físicas de afecto entre el favorito y el rey, acusándolo de tratar de mantener comercio carnal con el soberano.[23]​ En agosto de 1582, en la Incursión de Ruthven, los condes de Gowrie y Angus secuestraron al rey y lo condujeron al Castillo de Ruthven en Angus, encarcelándolo,[28]​ y obligándolo a desterrar a Lennox. El rey y el conde de Arran escaparon de Ruthven en junio de 1583 y recuperaron el poder. En consecuencia, el conde de Gowrie fue ejecutado, los rebeldes se vieron forzados a huir a Inglaterra, y Jacobo se dedicó a reforzar su control sobre el reino. El Parlamento aprobó las Actas Negras para afirmar la autoridad real sobre la Kirk, ponié...

    Proclamación como rey de Inglaterra

    Desde 1601, en los últimos años de Isabel I, ciertos políticos ingleses, en especial Robert Cecil, el principal ministro y consejero de la Reina,[47]​ mantuvieron correspondencia secreta con el rey de Escocia para preparar su sucesión al trono inglés. Al morir la reina Isabel I (24 de marzo de 1603), la corona debería haber pasado (de acuerdo al testamento de Enrique VIII) a Lady Ana Stanley,[48]​ descendiente de María Tudor, hermana de Enrique VIII. Sin embargo, Jacobo era el único aspirante...

    Los comienzos del reinado

    El principal consejero del nuevo rey fue el citado Robert Cecil, el hijo menor del ministro favorito de la reina Isabel, Lord Burghley, que fue creado conde de Salisbury en 1605. A pesar de la facilidad de la sucesión y la calidez con que fue recibido el nuevo monarca, en su primer año de reinado Jacobo hubo de hacer frente a dos conspiraciones, el Complot Bye y el Complot Main, que condujeron al arresto, entre otros, de lord Cobham y Walter Raleigh.[53]​ Jacobo odiaba a Raleigh, el más acend...

    La conspiración de la Pólvora

    La víspera de la solemne apertura de la segunda sesión del primer Parlamento de su reinado, el 5 de noviembre de 1605, un soldado llamado Guy Fawkes fue descubierto en los sótanos del Palacio de Westminster con una antorcha y fósforos, no lejos de una pila de leña y dos decenas de barriles de pólvora con los que pretendía hacer volar por los aires el Palacio al día siguiente, provocando la muerte, como el propio rey señaló, "no sólo... de mi persona, o de mi esposa y posteridad (...), sino de...

    Jacobo Estuardo tuvo una personalidad extremadamente curiosa, excéntrica pero no deslumbrante, desdibujada entre las sombras de las célebres reinas que le precedieron, Isabel I en Inglaterra y María Estuardo en Escocia, y las desdichas de su hijo Carlos, el primer rey condenado a muerte por un Parlamento. Apasionado por la caza, gran comedor y desmedido bebedor, Jacobo era un erudito de primera categoría, capaz de rebatir los argumentos de los sabios, teólogos y juristas, de abrumarles con tercos discursos en latín y sumergirlos bajo una catarata de citas bíblicas. Pero, a la vez, era un hombre caprichoso, vanidoso y sumamente cobarde, del que se decía que no podía ver una espada sin echarse a temblar. Se hallaba desprovisto de toda gracia y se lavaba muy raramente, complaciéndose con cinismo en su desaseo. Tenía accesos de cólera durante los cuales no sabía bien lo que decía, llegando a los insultos, y sus súbditos creían que le faltaba dignidad. Era miedoso y desconfiado, y recela...

    19 de junio de 1566 – 24 de julio de 1567: Príncipe Jacobo
    19 de junio de 1566 – 24 de julio de 1567: Duque de Rothesay
    10 de febrero – 24 de julio de 1567: Duque de Albany (conde de Ross, Lord Ardmannoch)
    24 de julio de 1567 – 27 de marzo de 1625: Su GraciaJacobo VI, rey de los escoceses.

    Entre 1593 y 1595, Jacobo tuvo por amante a Ana Murray, con posterioridad Lady Glamis, de la que no tuvo descendencia conocida. De su matrimonio con Ana de Dinamarca hubo 9 hijos, de los que solo 3 llegaron a la edad adulta:[97]​ 1. Enrique Federico (1594 - 1612), duque de Rothesay desde su nacimiento y al subir su padre al trono inglés, duque de Cornualles (1603) y príncipe de Gales(1610). 1. Un hijo (julio de 1595). 1. Isabel (1596 - 1662), casada con Federico V, elector palatino del Rin y pretendiente al trono de Bohemia. 1. Margarita de Inglaterra(24 de diciembre de 1598 - marzo de 1600), fallecida a los quince meses de edad. 1. Carlos (1600 - 1649), nombrado duque de Albany (1603) y de York (1605); rey de Inglaterra como Carlos I, al suceder a su padre por la muerte de su hermano mayor. Ejecutado durante las guerras civiles inglesas. 1. Roberto, duque de Kintyre(18 de enero de 1602 - 27 de mayo de 1602) , fallecido a los cuatro meses de edad. 1. Un hijo (1603). 1. María (1605 -...

    Bibliografía

    1. Atherton, Ian, y Como, David (2005). The Burning of Edward Wightman: Puritanism, Prelacy and the Politics of Heresy in Early Modern England. English Historical Review, Volumen 120, diciembre de 2005, N.º 489, 1215-1250. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2. Barroll, J. Leeds (2001). Anna of Denmark, Queen of England: A Cultural Biography. Filadelfia: Universidad de Pensilvania. ISBN 0-8122-3574-6. 3. Barroll, J. Leeds y Cerasano, Susan P. (1996). Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England: An...

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