Alfonso XIII de España 1 ( Madrid, 17 de mayo de 1886 – Roma, 28 de febrero de 1941) fue rey de España desde su nacimiento hasta la proclamación de la Segunda República Española el 14 de abril de 1931. Asumió personalmente la Corona al cumplir los dieciséis años de edad, el 17 de mayo de 1902.
El 1 de mayo de 1898 la escuadra española de Filipinas era hundida frente a las costas de Cavite por una flota norteamericana —y las tropas norteamericanas desembarcadas ocupaban Manila tres meses y medio después— y el 3 de julio le sucedía lo mismo a la flota enviada a Cuba al mando del almirante Cervera frente a la costa de Santiago de Cuba —a los pocos días Santiago de Cuba, la segunda ciudad en importancia de la isla, caía en manos de las tropas norteamericanas que habían ...
22 de dic. de 2022 · Alfonso XIII de España, llamado «el Africano» (Madrid, 17 de mayo de 1886 – Roma, 28 de febrero de 1941) fue rey de Españadesde su nacimiento hasta la proclamación de la Segunda República Españolael 14 de abril de 1931. Asumió personalmente la Corona al cumplir los dieciséis años de edad, el 17 de mayo de 1902.
Alfonso XIII. Madrid, 17.V.1886 – Roma (Italia), 28.II.1941. Rey de España. Hijo póstumo de Alfonso XII y de su segunda esposa, M.ª Cristina de Austria, recibió en la pila bautismal los nombres de Alfonso, León, Fernando, María, Santiago, Isidro, Pascual, Antón. Le apadrinaron el papa León XIII —representado por el nuncio, cardenal Rampolla— y la ...
- Personal Life
- See Also
- External Links
Early life and education
Alfonso XIII was born at Royal Palace of Madrid on 17 May 1886. He was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, who had died in November 1885, and became King upon his birth. Just after he was born, he was carried naked to the prime minister Práxedes Mateo Sagastaon a silver tray. Five days later he was carried in a solemn court procession with a Golden Fleece round his neck and was baptised with water specially brought from the River Jordan in Palestine. The French newspaper Le Figaro des...
Engagement and marriage
By 1905, Alfonso was looking for a suitable consort. On a state visit to the United Kingdom, he stayed in London at Buckingham Palace with King Edward VII. There he met Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the daughter of Edward's youngest sister Princess Beatrice, and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. He found her attractive, and she returned his interest. There were obstacles to the marriage. Victoria was a Protestant, and would have to become a Catholic. Victoria's brother Leopold was...
World War I
During World War I, because of his family connections with both sides and the division of popular opinion, Spain remained neutral. The King established an office for assistance to prisoners of war on all sides. This office used the Spanish diplomatic and military network abroad to intercede for thousands of POWs – transmitting and receiving letters for them, and other services. The office was located in the Royal Palace. Alfonso attempted to save the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and his family fr...
Alfonso was a promoter of tourism in Spain. The need for the lodging of his wedding guests prompted the construction of the luxurious Hotel Palace in Madrid. He also supported the creation of a network of state-run lodges, Paradores, in historic buildings of Spain. His fondness for the sport of football led to the patronage of several "royal" ("rea...
Legitimate and illegitimate children
Alfonso and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg(Ena) had seven children: 1. Alfonso, Prince of Asturias(1907–1938); 2. Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia(1908–1975); 3. Infanta Beatriz(1909–2002); 4. Infante Fernando (stillborn1910); 5. Infanta María Cristina(1911–1996); 6. Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona(1913–1993); 7. Infante Gonzalo(1914–1934). Alfonso also had a number of reported illegitimate children that are known, including: Roger Marie Vincent Philippe Lévêque de Vilmorin[e...
Attitude towards Jews
Alfonso was known for his friendly attitude towards Jews, taking several actions to offer them protection. In 1917, Alfonso instructed the Spanish consul in Jerusalem, Antonio de la Cierva y Lewita, Count of Ballobar, to help protect Palestinian Jews. On another occasion, after a high official in Tetuan had committed onslaughts against Jews, a delegation composed of Catholics, Jews, and Muslims appealed to Alfonso. The King then removed the Tetuan official from power, in spit...
Alfonso is occasionally referred to as "the playboy king", due in part to his promotion and collection of Spanish pornographic films, as well as his extramarital affairs. As King, Alfonso commissioned pornographic films through the Barcelona production company Royal Films, with the Count of Romanones acting as an intermediary figure between him and the company. Between forty to seventy pornographic films are said to have been shot in total (three of which have been preserved) and were screene...
1. 1,072nd Knight of the Golden Fleece, 1886 2. Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III, with Collar, 1886 3. Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, with Collar, 1927 4. Order of Santiago 5. Order of Calatrava 6. Order of Alcántara 7. Order of Montesa 8. Maestranza de caballería(Royal Cavalry Armory) of Ronda, Sevilla, Granada, Valencia and Zaragoza 9. Founder of the Civil Order of Alfonso XII, 23 May 1902 10. Founder of the Order of Civil Merit, 25 June 1926
In the Royal Library of Madrid, there are books containing emblems of the Spanish monarch.
Alfonso XIII is a rare example of endogamy. In the eleventh generation he has only 111 ancestors whereas in a standard situation one expects to identify 1024 of them. Here we are with a situation of implexof 89%.List of covers of Time magazine (1920s), (1930s)Avilés Farré, Juan; Elizalde Pérez-Grueso, María Dolores; Sueiro Seoane, Susana (2002). Historia política de España, 1875-1939. Vol. 1. Tres Cantos: Ediciones Istmo. ISBN 84-7090-320-9.Barry, John M. (2004). The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Greatest Plague in History. Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-89473-7.Casals, Xavier (2004). "Miguel Primo de Rivera, el espejo de Franco". Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja. Madrid: Ediciones B. pp. 123–253. ISBN 84-666-1447-8.Newspaper clippings about Alfonso XIII in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW