A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the bladder.. A spasmodic muscle contraction may be caused by many medical conditions, including dystonia.
Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something. It is a state of indifference, or the suppression of emotions such as concern, excitement, motivation, or passion.
Amphetamine-type stimulants were originally derived from the plant Ephedra, which contains the amphetamine-like stimulant ephedrine and had been used for its effects in China dating back an estimated 5,000 years. Ephedrine was isolated from Ephedra vulgaris in Japan in 1885 and was studied for its medicinal properties through the 1920s.
Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and an amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.   It is also used as an athletic performance and cognitive enhancer , and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant .
Medications used include stimulants, atomoxetine, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, and sometimes antidepressants. In those who have trouble focusing on long-term rewards, a large amount of positive reinforcement improves task performance. ADHD stimulants also improve persistence and task performance in children with ADHD.
Some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or heart rate to levels resulting in death (when using very high doses). DXM in higher doses can increase heart rate and blood pressure and still depress respiration.