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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › StimulantStimulant - Wikipedia

    Abuse of central nervous system (CNS) stimulants is common. Addiction to some CNS stimulants can quickly lead to medical, psychiatric, and psychosocial deterioration. Drug tolerance, dependence, and sensitization as well as a withdrawal syndrome can occur. Stimulants may be screened for in animal discrimination and self-administration models ...

  2. The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting primarily of the brain and spinal cord.The CNS is so named because the brain integrates the received information and coordinates and influences the activity of all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and diploblasts.

  3. At therapeutic doses, ADHD stimulants do not sufficiently activate the reward system, or the reward pathway in particular, to the extent necessary to cause persistent increases in ΔFosB gene expression in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens; consequently, when taken as directed in doses that are commonly prescribed for the treatment of ADHD, methylphenidate use lacks the ...

  4. Farmacodinámica. Si bien el mecanismo de acción de mirtazapina (como el de otros antidepresivos) no está totalmente dilucidado, la evidencia existente sugiere que mirtazapina refuerza la actividad serotoninérgica y noradrenérgica central.

  5. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a stimulant of the cathinone class that acts as a norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It was first developed in the 1960s by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim.

  6. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AdderallAdderall - Wikipedia

    Adderall is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder). Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines at therapeutic dosages appear to improve brain development and nerve growth.

  7. Definition. The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing substances are not entirely clear-cut and objective. As in other types of categorization, certain prototype performance enhancers are universally classified as such (like anabolic steroids), whereas other substances (like vitamins and protein supplements) are virtually never classified as performance enhancers despite their ...