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  1. › wiki › CaliphateCaliphate - Wikipedia

    A caliphate or khilāfah (Arabic: خِلَافَة ‎, Arabic pronunciation: ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under Islamic rule. The person who holds this office carries the title of caliph (/ ˈ k æ l ɪ f, ˈ k eɪ-/; Arabic: خَلِيفَة ‎ Arabic pronunciation: [xæ'liː'fæt], pronunciation (help · info)) and is considered a politico-religious successor ...

  2. Caliphate (Swedish: Kalifat) is a Swedish thriller drama television series. It premiered on 12 January 2020 on Sveriges Television. It became the most-viewed series ever on SVT Play. The story is based on the real-life case of the Bethnal Green trio, in which three teenage girls from London met jihad recruiters at their high school in February ...

    • 8
    • 12 January –, 9 February 2020
    • 1
    • SVT1
    • History
    • Famous Caliphs
    • Related Pages
    • Further Reading
    • Other Sources

    Rashidun, AD 632-661

    Abu Bakr, the first successor of Muhammad, nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed, and there was consensus in the Muslim community to his choice. His successor, Uthman Ibn Affan, was elected by a council of electors (Majlis). But soon he was seen by some more as a "king" than as an elected leader. Uthman was killed by members of an opposition group. Then Ali took control. He was very popular with many, but he was not accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt. Later on even some of...

    Umayyads, AD 661-750

    Under the Umayyads the Caliphate grew rapidly geographically. Islamic rule expanded westward across North Africa and into Hispania and eastward through Persia and ultimately to Sindh and Punjab in modern-day Pakistan. This made it one of the largest unitary states in history and one of the few states to ever extend direct rule over three continents (Africa, Europe, and Asia). Although not ruling all of the Sahara, homage was paid to the Caliph by Saharan Africa usually via various nomad Berbe...

    Abbasids, AD 750-1258

    The Abbasids had an unbroken line of Caliphs for over three centuries, consolidating Islamic rule and cultivating great intellectual and cultural developments in the Middle East. By 940 the power of the Caliphate under the Abbasids was waning as non-Arabs, particularly the Berbers of North Western Africa, the Turkish, and later the Mamluks in Egypt in the latter half of the 13th century, gained influence, and sultans and emirs became increasingly independent. However, the Caliphate endured as...

    Abu Bakr - First Rashidun (Four Righteously Guided Caliphs) of the Sunnis. Subdued rebel tribes in the Ridda wars.
    Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab) - Second Rashidun. During his reign, the Islamic empire expanded to include Egypt, Jerusalem, and Persia.
    The theory of government in Islam Archived 2007-06-29 at the Wayback Machine, by The Internet Islamic University
    The History of Al-Khilafah Ar-Rashidah Upper Elementary/Junior Level. IQRA International Educational Foun. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-56316-336-4.
    Muhammad ibn Yarir al- Tabari; Muhammad b. Yarir al- Tabari, ?abar?, Mu?ammad Ibn-?ar?r a?- ?abar? (1990). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 15: The Crisis of the Early Caliphate: The Reign of 'Uthman...
    Muhammad ibn Yarir al- Tabari; Muhammad b. Yarir al- Tabari, Mu?ammad ibn ?ar?r ibn Yaz?d al- ?abar?, ?abar?, Mu?ammad Ibn-?ar?r a?- ?abar? (1987). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 32: The Reunificati...
    Crone, Patricia & Hinds, Martin -- God's Caliph, Cambridge University Press, 1986
    Donner, Fred -- The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press, 1981
    Wright, Lawrence (2007). The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. London: Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-3084-2.
    • Overview
    • Synopsis
    • Initial reception
    • Abdul Huzaifa al-Kanadi controversy

    Caliphate is a narrative podcast published by The New York Times in 2018 which covers the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. It was hosted by reporter Rukmini Callimachi. The central figure of the podcast was Pakistani-Canadian Shehroze Chaudhry, who described in detail atrocities he claimed to have committed in Syria for ISIL. Concerns were raised that his story was a fabrication or a grave misrepresentation, and in 2020 Chaudhry was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's O Division

    A large portion of the podcast is dedicated to following the story of a Canadian ex-ISIL fighter using the nom de guerre Abu Huzaifa al-Kanadi. Callimachi found Huzaifa through Instagram, and conducted an in-person interview in a hotel in Canada. The show details Huzaifa's radicalization and career as a member of ISIL's police, including an admission of carrying out executions on behalf of ISIL.

    The podcast received a Peabody Award and the Overseas Press Club of America award in 2019. Both would later be returned by The Times after doubts around Chaudry's story came to light. Callimachi was a finalist for the 2019 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting for her reporting on ISIL, which included the podcast and "The ISIS Files" database. On December 22, 2020, the Pulitzer Prizes board indicated it would rescind the finalist status at the request of the Times. In 2018, Caliphate won In

    On May 11, 2018, Conservative members of the Parliament of Canada demanded that Public Safety minister Ralph Goodale take action against Huzaifa. Shortly after, Huzaifa told the CBC that he had lied about carrying out executions for ISIL. Huzaifa was arrested on September 25, 2020, after an investigation found that he had no ties to ISIL. He was charged with "hoax-terrorist activity", which is primarily used to prosecute fake bomb threats. Following his arrest, The New York Times revealed Huzaif

    • English
    • Ended
    • Andy Mills, Larissa Anderson (managing), Asthaa Chaturvedi (associate)
    • Rukmini Callimachi
  3. Hussein's claim for caliphate was not accepted by the Wahhabi and Salafi movements, and in 1925 he was driven from Hejaz by the forces of Ibn Saud as an outcome of the Second Saudi-Hashemite War. He continued to use the title of caliph during his remaining life in exile, until his death in 1931. Ahmadiyya Caliphate (1908–present)

    Name (and Titles)
    Reigned From
    Mu'awiyah I ( معاوية )
    Mu'awiyah II ( معاوية الثاني ...
    November 683
    Marwan I ( مروان بن الحکم )
    • Hereditary (since 661)
    • Abu Bakr
    • 1362–1517
    • 1517–1875
    • Sultan Abdul Hamid II, 1876–1909
    • Counter-Coup and 31 March Incident
    • Sultan Mehmed V, 1909–18
    • Abolition

    Since Sultan Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362, the caliphate was claimed by the Turkish sultans of the Ottoman Empire.

    In 1517, the Ottoman Sultan Selim I defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo in the Ottoman–Mamluk War. The last Caliph of Cairo, Al-Mutawakkil III, was brought back to Constantinople as prisoner. There, it is said, Al-Mutawakkil formally surrendered the title of caliph as well as its outward emblems—the sword and mantle of Muhammad—to Selim, establishing the Ottoman sultans as the new caliphal line. And they gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representative of the Islamic world. From Constantinople, the Ottoman sultans ruled over an empire that, at its peak, covered Anatolia, most of the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and extended deep into Eastern Europe. Strengthened by the Peace of Westphalia and the Industrial Revolution, European powers regrouped and challenged Ottoman dominance. Owing largely to poor leadership, archaic political norms, and an inability to keep pace with technological progress in Europe, the Ottoman Empire could not respond effect...

    Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who ruled 1876–1909, felt that the Empire's desperate situation could only be remedied through strong and determined leadership. He distrusted his ministers and other officials that had served his predecessors and gradually reduced their role in his regime, concentrating absolute power over the Empire's governance in his own hands. Taking a hard-line against Western involvement in Ottoman affairs, he emphasized the Empire's "Islamic" character, reasserted his status as the Caliph, and called for Muslim unity behind the Caliphate. Abdul-Hamid strengthened the Empire's position somewhat, and succeeded briefly in reasserting Islamic power, by building numerous schools, reducing the national debt, and embarking on projects aimed at revitalizing the Empire's decaying infrastructure. In 1899, the Ottomans would comply with a request from the United States government and leverage their religious authority as caliphs to order that Tausug Sultanate of Sulu (located in...

    A counter-coup launched by soldiers loyal to the Sultan threatened the new government but ultimately failed. After nine months into the new parliamentary term, discontent and reaction found expression in a fundamentalist movement, the counter-revolutionary 31 March Incident, which actually occurred on 13 April 1909. Many aspects of this revolt, which started within certain sections of the mutinying army in Constantinople, are still yet to be analyzed. Its generally admitted perception of a "reactionary" movement has sometimes been challenged, given the results and effects on the young political system. Abdul-Hamid was deposed on 13 April 1909. He was replaced by his brother Rashid Effendi, who was proclaimed Sultan Mehmed Von 27 April.

    With Libya

    In 1911 Italy warred with the Ottomans over Libya, and Turkey's failure to defend these regions demonstrated the weakness of the Ottoman military. In 1912 Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece formed the Balkan League, an anti-Ottoman alliance that subsequently launched a joint attack on the Ottoman Empire. The ensuing Balkan Warseliminated what little presence the Ottomans had left in Europe, and only infighting between the Balkan League allies prevented them from advancing into Anatolia....

    World War I

    As World War I broke out in Europe, the Young Turks struck an alliance with Germany, a move that would have disastrous consequences. The Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers in November 1914, and Britain, France, and Russia immediately declared war on Ottoman Empire. During the development of the war, the empire's position continued to deteriorate, and even in the Middle East – the very heartland of the Islamic world– would soon be lost.

    Call for Jihad

    Though the Young Turks had compelled the Sultan in his capacity as the Caliph to declare a jihad urging all Muslims to resist Allied encroachment on their lands, the effort was largely unsuccessful. The Young Turk government resigned en masse and Enver, Talat, and Cemal fled Turkey aboard a German warship. Sultan Mehmed VI, who was proclaimed Sultan after his brother Mehmed V died of a heart attack in July, agreed to an armistice. The Armistice of Mudros formalizing Ottoman surrender was sign...

    The Turkish national movement, as the details explained in Turkish War of Independence, formed a Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara on April 23, 1920, and secured formal recognition of the nation's independence and new borders on 20 Feb, 1923 through the Treaty of Lausanne. The National Assembly declared Turkey a republic on October 29, 1923, and proclaimed Ankara its new capital. After over 600 years, the Ottoman Empire had officially ceased to exist. However, under Allied direction, the Sultan pledged to suppress such movements and secured an official fatwa from the Sheikh ul-Islam declaring them to be un-Islamic.But the nationalists steadily gained momentum and began to enjoy widespread support. Many sensed that the nation was ripe for revolution. In an effort to neutralize this threat, the Sultan agreed to hold elections, with the hope of placating and co-opting the nationalists. To his dismay, nationalist groups swept the polls, prompting him to again dissolve parliament...

  4. The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; UK: / ʊ ˈ m aɪ j æ d, uː ˈ-/, US: / uː ˈ m aɪ (j) ə d,-aɪ æ d /; Arabic: ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة ‎, romanized: al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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