Hace 4 días · According to one common view, the Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during the Rashidun caliphate) to a dynastic one. However, the Umayyad caliphs do seem to have understood themselves as the representatives of God on earth, and to have been responsible for the "definition and elaboration of God's ordinances, or in other words the definition or elaboration of Islamic law."
Hace 4 días · They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid Caliphate first centered its government in Kufa , modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad , near the ancient Babylonian capital city of Babylon .
26 de ene. de 2023 · Caliphate of Córdoba, Muslim state that existed in Spain from January 16, 929, when ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III assumed the supreme title of caliph, to 1031, when the puppet ruler Hishām III was deposed by his viziers and the caliphate disintegrated into the so-called kingdoms of the taifa.
- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Hace 1 día · At its height, the caliphate included – in addition to Egypt – varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and the Hijaz. Between 902 to 909 the foundation of the Fatimid state was realized by the Kutama Berbers , under the leadership of the da'i (missionary) Abu Abdallah , whose conquest of Ifriqiya paved the way for the establishment of the Caliphate.
Hace 3 días · By the Umayyad period, the caliphate had a standing army, including the elite Ahl al-Sham ("people of Syria"), raised from the Arabs who settled in Syria. The caliphate was divided into a number of jund, or regional armies, stationed in the provinces being made of mostly Arab tribes who were paid monthly by the Diwan al-Jaysh (War Ministry).
Hace 4 días · While cultural influence used to radiate outward from Baghdad, after the Mongol destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate, Arab influence decreased. Iran and Central Asia, benefiting from increased cross-cultural access to East Asia under Mongol rule , flourished and developed more distinctively from Arab influence, such as the Timurid Renaissance under the Timurid dynasty .