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  1. 20/09/2015 · 1928 Calvin Coolidge - Kellogg-Briand Pact. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris was an international agreement to outlaw war. It was signed on August 27, 1928 by 15 nations including the United States, France, Germany, and Japan. The pact was originally proposed as a bilateral agreement between the United States and France to ...

    • World War I Causes Global Devastation
    • France Proposes A Peace Pact to The United States
    • Secretary Kellogg and A Treaty to Outlaw War
    • Putting The Kellogg-Briand Pact to The Test

    World War I, also known as the Great War, began in 1914 and came to an end in 1918. In that time, Europe saw changes to national borders, advancements in military technology, and public life after the decimation of towns and cities. However, these transformations came with the ultimate sacrifice — millions of citizens and military personnel died during the conflict. In 1919, the victorious Allies organized the Paris Peace Conference, which was called to establish the terms of peace. The Paris Peace Conference culminated in five major treaties in addition to the creation of the League of Nations. One treaty, The Treaty of Versailles, took aim at Germany as the key belligerent during the war. Against the United States’ warnings of caution, France and Great Britain spearheaded the terms of the treaty, aiming to punish Germany for its role in the war. The Treaty of Versailles demanded Germany disarm its army and navy, concede pre-war territory, and pay extensive reparations. The Treaty...

    New peace treaties and different land and military concessions after the war created an uncertain world. In Russia, Bolshevism and communism had taken root. The new spread of communist ideologies frightened many Western nations, who saw it as a threat to democratic ideals. Global and national economies were depleted by the costly war. The League of Nations offered little stability, as it had no internal leadership, therefore no international authority. In light of the chaos and sheer loss of life during the war, French Minister of Foreign Affairs Aristide Briand publicly proposed a peace pact to the United States. In a letter to the Associated Press, Briand thanked the United States for its assistance during the war and requested the U.S. government to join France in “outlawing war.” Briand understood that the United States government could not ignore a public call for peace. The American public was angry that it was pulled into the European war, for which they believed they had no...

    Unwilling to put the United States in a position where it may have to go to war to defend an ally, Kellogg responded with an equally appealing counteroffer. He suggested an open invitation to all countries to join the United States and France in a pact to outlaw war. Coolidge and Kellogg knew it was impossible that all nations would agree and comply. However, by opening the discussion to more voices, focus shifted away from the United States specifically and broadened it to include all potential stakeholder nations. The agreement became known as the Kellogg-Briand Pactin recognition of its primary creators and was signed in Paris, France, on August 27, 1928. The main text has two articles: 1. Signatories shall renounce war as a national policy and; 2. Signatories shall settle disputes by peaceful means. The broad terms allowed room for interpretation by signatories to still act in self-defense, abide by other post-war treaties, and pursue general military action. An initial 15 natio...

    The treaty was put to the test and failed in 1931 when Japan invaded Manchuria, China. It became clear that the Kellogg-Briand Pact proved ineffective in preventing war without enforcement and with undefined legal terms. World War II began just 11 years after its signing. The pact was not completely unsuccessful, however. It promoted and popularized the idea that aggressive and preemptive military intervention and territory accession were unfavorable, soon becoming the global standard. The ideas outlined in the League of Nations and the Kellogg-Briand Pact cemented in the creation of the United Nations in 1945. Established to maintain international peace and security and promote goodwill between nations, the UN was on stable ground as an intergovernmental organization with an initial 51 member states, including the United States. The first example of decreased international acceptance of war for territory accession was seen at the Tokyo Tribunal and Nuremberg Trials, where Japan and...

    • nmad@state.gov
    • January 25, 2022
  2. The Kellogg–Briand Pact or Pact of Paris – officially the General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy – is a 1928 international agreement on peace in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them".

  3. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement to outlaw war signed on August 27, 1928. Sometimes called the Pact of Paris for the city in which it was signed, the pact was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War, but it had little effect in stopping the rising militarism of the 1930s or preventing World War II.

  4. Kellogg-Briand Pact (August 27, 1928), multilateral agreement attempting to eliminate war as an instrument of national policy. It was the most grandiose of a series of peacekeeping efforts after World War I. The treaty’s failure to establish a means of enforcement rendered the agreement completely ineffective.

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