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  1. When her sister Archduchess Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen, known to the family as Marie or Mimi, visited Parma in 1775, she reported to their mother that Amalia lost much of her beauty and glamour and was also less gay and discriminating.

  2. Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria (Maria Amalia Josephe Johanna Katharina Theresia; 15 October 1780 - 25 December 1798) was an Archduchess of Austria by birth. Biography [ edit ] Maria Amalia with her family, circa 1784-1785

    • Archduchess of Austria
    • Later Life
    • Issue
    • Titles, Styles, Honours and Arms

    She was the eighth child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and Emperor Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Born at the Hofburg Imperial Palace, she was raised in the Habsburg Viennese court in winter and at Schönbrunn and Laxenburg in summer. As her siblings, she was regularly interviewed by her mother. Maria Amalia, as her sisters, was mainly raised to be an ideal consort and taught the arts and how to be obedient, dutiful and representative. Because of her age and the fact that the siblings were raised separated by gender, she was in practice raised as an only child. She did not have a good relationship with her mother: in fact, of all her daughters, Maria Theresa was said to have the worse relationship with Amalia.When she debuted as an adult in the society life in Vienna, she made a success because of her beauty. One of her paintings, St. Therese and the child Jesus, still exists today in a private collection.

    In May 1796, during the French invasion of Italy under General Napoleon Bonaparte, the Duchy of Parma was invaded by French troops. Against the opposition of Amalia, who detested the French after the execution of her sister Marie Antoinette, Ferdinand was ambivalent because of him being half French, and had declared the Duchy neutral against her will, but the neutrality was not respected by the French. Napoleon offered to refrain from conquering the Duchy if they agreed to let troops pass. After having received no reply, he offered Ferdinand the island of Sardinia in exchange for Parma. After being refused, he had French troops occupy Parma under general Cervoni and forced Ferdinand to agree to terms dictated by the French.Though Ferdinand and Amalia were formally allowed to keep their titles, they were kept under French guard, the Duchy was ruled by French representatives and used for taxes to finance the French army. By the Treaty of Luneville in February 1801, the Duchy of Parma...

    She and Ferdinand had nine children: 1. Princess Carolina of Parma (22 November 1770 – 1 March 1804). Married Prince Maximilian of Saxonyand was the mother of King Frederick Augustus II and King Johann I of Saxony. 2. King Louis I of Etruria (5 July 1773 – 27 May 1803). The first of only two kings of Etruria. Married his first cousin, Maria Louisa of Spain. 3. Princess Maria Antonia of Parma(28 November 1774 – 20 February 1841), joined the religious order in 1802 and became an Ursuline abbess. 4. Princess Charlotte Maria of Parma (7 September 1777 – 5 April 1813), joined the Dominican order in 1797 and became a prioress 5. Prince Philip Maria of Parma (22 March 1783 – 2 July 1786). 6. Princess Antonia Louise of Parma (21 October 1784), died in infancy. 7. Princess Maria Luisa (Aloysia) of Parma (17 April 1787 – 22 November 1789). 8. Stillborn Daughter, twin (21 May 1789) 9. Stillborn Son, twin (21 May 1789)

    Titles and styles

    1. 26 February 1746 – 19 July 1769 Her Royal HighnessArchduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, Princess of Hungary, etc. 2. 19 July 1769 – 9 October 1802 Her Royal Highnessthe Duchess of Parma 3. 9 October 1802 – 18 June 1804 Her Royal Highnessthe Dowager Duchess of Parma

  3. Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria (26 February 1746-18 June 1804) was the Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla from 19 July 1769 to 9 October 1802 as the wife of Duke Ferdinand of Parma. Maria Amalia was born in Vienna, Austria in 1746, the eighth child of Emperor Franz I of Germany and Empress Maria Theresa. Against her will, she was married to Ferdinand of Parma, and she left Austria ...

  4. Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, Duchess consort of Parma (* 26.2.1746, O 27.6.1769, † 18.6.1804) Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Maria Carolina of Austria Archduchess Marie Antoinette of Austria, Queen consort of France and Navarre: Franz I, Holy Roman Emperor (* 8.12.1708, O 12.2.1736, † 18.8.1765)

  5. On 5 October 1722, Charles Albert married Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, whom he had met at the imperial court in Vienna. She was the younger daughter of the late Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his wife Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1725 Charles Albert visited Versailles for the wedding of Louis XV of France, and ...

    • Vida Temprana
    • Duquesa de Parma
    • Últimos años
    • Descendencia
    • Distinciones Honoríficas
    • Enlaces Externos

    María Amalia fue la octava hija de los emperadores María Teresa y Francisco I. Nacida en el Palacio Imperial de Hofburg, creció en la corte vienesa de los Habsburgo en compañía de sus numerosos hermanas y hermanos, siendo muy apreciada por su belleza. Su educación consistió principalmente en arte y música.[1]​ A los veintidós años, quiso desposarse con el joven y atractivo príncipe Carlos de Zweibrücken, quien frecuentaba la corte de Viena y era muy conocido por la familia imperial. Sin embargo María Teresa y su ministro Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz consideraron que la unión no era lo suficientemente conveniente para la joven. De esta forma Carlos fue obligado a abandonar definitivamente la corte, ofendido por la Emperatriz. Contra su voluntad, María Amalia fue comprometida y después desposada con el Duque Fernando I de Parma. El matrimonio también tuvo el apoyo del futuro José II, hermano mayor de María Amalia, cuya primera y muy amada esposa, Isabel de Borbón-Parma, había sido la her...

    El matrimonio se celebró primero que nada en Viena el 27 de junio de 1769; María Amalia dejó Austria el 1 de julio de ese año acompañada por su hermano José. La boda oficial se efectuó el 19 de julio en el Palacio Ducal de Colorno. En Parma, María Amalia comenzó a interferir en la política, en un principio con el apoyo y consejo de su madre, la emperatriz María Teresa, que opinaba que su hija debía tomar parte activa de la política de su país adoptivo, pero solo como apoyo a Fernando. Sin embargo, la duquesa llevó el consejo de su madre al extremo, llevando a la corte de Parma a ser una ridícula exageración de la vienesa. María Teresa, a pesar de la oposición de su hijo José II, convence a las cortes reales de Francia y España de dar apoyo, soporte financiero y ayuda política a la corte de Parma. Al poco tiempo María Amalia deja de lado a su marido de diecisiete años e inicia una vida disoluta que incluía amantes frecuentes. Los adulterios de la Duquesa escandalizaron a las cortes e...

    Debido a la ejecución de María Antonieta y de Luis XVI, María Amalia para siempre profesó un gran y profundo odio y desprecio por los franceses y la revolución. Cuando Napoleón Bonaparte invade Italia y su marido fallece (se sospecha que envenenado), María Amalia fue nombrada Jefe del Consejo de Regencia, que duró sólo unos pocos días. El 22 de octubre de 1802, los franceses expulsaron a toda la familia de Parma, estableciendo su residencia en Praga, donde murió dos años más tarde. Sus restos fueron enterrados en la Cripta Real de la Catedral de San Vito, y su corazón fue trasladado a Viena.

    María Amalia y Fernando tuvieron nueve hijos, cinco de los cuales murieron en la infancia: 1. Carolina (22 de noviembre de 1770 - 1 de marzo de 1804), casada con su primo lejano Maximiliano de Sajonia. Tuvo descendencia. 2. Luis I (5 de agosto de 1773 - 27 de mayo de 1803), casado con su prima María Luisa de Borbón. Tuvo descendencia. 3. María Antonieta (28 de noviembre de 1774 - 20 de febrero de 1841), murió soltera y sin descendencia. Se unió a las Ursulinasen 1803. 4. Carlota María (7 de septiembre de 1777 - 5 de abril de 1813), murió soltera y sin descendencia. Se unió a la Orden de Predicadores.[2]​ 5. Felipe María (22 de mayo de 1783 - 2 de julio de 1786), murió en la infancia. 6. Antonia Luisa (21 de octubre de 1784), murió poco después de nacer. 7. María Luisa (17 de abril de 1787 - 22 de noviembre de 1789), murió en la infancia. 8. Gemelos nacidos muertos (21 de mayo de 1789)

    Dama de la Orden de la Cruz Estrellada (S.I.R.G.).
    1784: Rosa de Oro de la Cristiandad.[3]​ (Estados Pontificios)

    Esta obra contiene una traducción derivada de «Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria» de la Wikipedia en inglés, publicada por sus editores bajo la Licencia de documentación libre de GNU y la Licenci...

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