Following the devastation of the First World War (1914–1918), Germany was exhausted and sued for peace in desperate circumstances. Awareness of imminent defeat sparked a revolution, the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, formal surrender to the Allies, and the proclamation of the Weimar Republic on 9 November 1918.
Coordenadas: 52°31′00″N 13°24′00″E ( mapa) República de Weimar La República de Weimar (en alemán, Weimarer Republik) fue el régimen político y, por extensión, el período de la historia de Alemania comprendido entre 1918 y 1933, tras la derrota del país en la Primera Guerra Mundial.
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After the German Empire was defeated in World War I, Germany became a republic, but it was still called "Deutsches Reich" (German Empire). Today it is called the Weimar Republic and this period is called the Weimar period, because the constitution was made in the city of Weimar.
What we now call The Weimar Republic came to an end on 23 March 1933, when Chancellor Adolf Hitler installed the Enabling Act, which established the Third Reich.
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Archaeological finds dating back to the Thuringii epoch (3rd to 6th centuries) show that the Weimar part of the Ilmvalley was settled early. A tight network of settlements occupied much of the area of today's city.
The oldest records regarding Weimar date to 899. Its name changed over the centuries from Wimares through Wimari to Wimar and finally Weimar; it is derived from Old High German wīh- (holy) and -mari (standing water, swamp). The place was the seat of the County of Weimar, first mentioned in 949, which was one of the most powerful jurisdictions in early-Middle Ages Thuringia. In 1062 it was united with the County of Orlamünde to the new County of Weimar-Orlamünde, which existed until the Thurin...
Early Modern Period
After the Treaty of Leipzig (1485) Weimar became part of the electorate of the Ernestine branch of Wettins with Wittenberg as capital. The Protestant Reformation was introduced in Weimar in 1525; Martin Luther stayed several times in the city. As the Ernestines lost the Schmalkaldic War in 1547, their capital Wittenberg went also to the Albertines, so that they needed a new residence. As the ruler returned from captivity, Weimar became his residence in 1552 and remained as such until the end...
Weimar is situated within the valley of Ilm river, a tributary of Saale river on the southern border of the Thuringian Basin, a fertile agricultural area between the Harz mountains 70 km (43 mi) in the north and the Thuringian Forest 50 km (31 mi) in the southwest. The municipal terrain is hilly; the height of the city centre in Ilm valley is approximately 200 m of elevation. To the north, the terrain rises to Ettersberg, the city's backyard mountain, 482 m in height. The range of hills in th...
Weimar has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F) and lows of 12 °C (54 °F). Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of 2 °C (36 °F) and lows of −3 °C (27 °F). The city's topography creates a microclimate caused through the basin position with sometimes inversionin winter (quite cold nights under −20 °C (−4 °F))....
Weimar abuts the district of Weimarer Land with the municipalities Berlstedt, Ettersburg, Kleinobringen, Großobringen and Wohlsborn in the north, Kromsdorf, Umpferstedt and Mellingen in the east, Vollersroda, Buchfart, Hetschburg, Bad Berka and Troistedt in the south and Nohra, Daasdorf am Berge, Hopfgarten and Ottstedt am Bergein the west. The city itself is divided into 10 inner urban and 11 suburban districts. The centre is formed by the district Altstadt (old town) and the Gründerzeit dis...
World Heritage Sites
Two World Heritage Sitesconverge in Weimar: 1. The Classical Weimar World Heritage Site consists of 11 sites related to Weimar as a European centre of the Enlightenmentduring the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 2. The Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau World Heritage Site comprises six separate sites, two in Weimar, which are associated with the Bauhausart school, which had a revolutionary influence on 20th century architectural and aesthetic thinking and practice.
Weimar has a great variety of museums: 1. The Goethe-Nationalmuseum at Frauenplan shows the life of Johann Wolfgang von Goethein his former residence. 2. Goethe's garden house in the Park an der Ilmshows an exhibition about Goethe and his connection to nature. 3. The Schiller-Museum at Schillerstraße shows the life of Friedrich Schillerin his former residence. 4. The Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv at Hans-Wahl-Straße collects the estate of Goethe, Schiller and other various artists. In 2001, it...
The historic city centre of Weimar is situated between the Ilm river in the east, Grabenstraße in the north, Goetheplatz and Theaterplatz in the west and Schillerstraße in the south. Its two central squares are the Marktplatz in the south (with the town hall) and the Herderplatz in the north (with the main church). Despite its medieval origin, there are only a few medieval buildings, many being destroyed by frequent fires throughout the city's history. Most buildings in this area date back to...
Agriculture, industry and services
The area around Weimar is relatively fertile and 48% of the municipal surface are used for agricultural production. Most common agricultures are cereals, maize and rapeseed, while famous agricultural products from the Weimar region are potatoes (especially from Heichelheim, 7 km (4 mi) to the north) for dishes with Thuringian dumplings (Knödel from potatoes), onions (from Heldrungen and Oldisleben, 45 km (28 mi) to the north), which are sold at Weimar Onion Market in October, and Saale-Unstru...
After the reunification, the educational system was realigned. Some academies were combined into the new Bauhaus University, founded in 1996 with approximately 4,200 students and focus on architecture, design and media. The Liszt School of Music is a university focussed on music and music education founded in 1872 with 850 students today. Furthermore, there are three regular Gymnasiums, the Musikgymnasium Schloss Belvedere, an elite boarding school with focus on music, and the Thuringia Inter...
Mayor and city council
The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April 2018, and the results were as follows: The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows:
List of mayors and lord mayors (since 1793) The years behind the names indicate the years of office, whereby the year of office did not correspond to the calendar year. Since 1838, the city has had a lord mayor. 1. 1793–1797: Johann Heinrich Siegmund Rentsch 2. 1798–1811: Carl Adolph Schultze[de] 3. 1811–1813: Daniel Wilhelm Brunnquell 4. 1813: Carl Christian August Paulssen[de] 5. 1814–1820: Bernhard Friedrich Rudolph Kuhn 6. 1820–1838: Carl Leberecht Schwabe[de] 7. 1838–1850: Carl Georg Has...
John M. Jeep, ed. (2001). "Weimar". Medieval Germany: an Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-7644-3.
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The States of the Weimar Republic were the first-level administrative divisions and constituent states of the German Reich during the Weimar Republic era. The states were established in 1918 following the German Revolution upon the conclusion of World War I, and based on the 22 constituent states of the German Empire that abolished their local mona...
Germany suffered significant territorial losses from the Treaty of Versailles following World War I, and some states had their borders altered by international border changes. In 1920, the state of Thuringia was formed from the former Ernestine duchies that continued briefly as republics before merging, except for Saxe-Coburg, which became part of ...
The states of the Weimar Republic were effectively abolished after the establishment of Nazi Germany in 1933 by a series of Reichsstatthalter decrees between 1933 and 1935, and autonomy was replaced by direct rule of the National Socialist German Workers' Party in the Gleichschaltung process. The states continued to formally exist as de jure rudime...
After World War I, the Saar Basin was occupied and governed jointly by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate. After a plebiscite was held in January 1935, the region was returned to Germany. In accordance with the Treaty of Versailles, the city of Danzig was detached from Germany on 15 November 1920 and t...
Weimar Republic 11 August 1919 The Weimar Constitution is announced. 11 September 1919 Adolf Hitler sent as Vertrauensmann to infiltrate the German Workers' Party. 1920 January 1920 The DAP grew to 190 members. 4 February 1920 Allies demand 900 Germans be handed over for war crimes.