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  1. Charles Cornwallis. Charles Cornwallis, 1.er marqués de Cornwallis, KG ( Grosvenor Square, Londres, 31 de diciembre de 1738 - Gauspur, Ghazipur, India, 5 de octubre de 1805) fue un militar y gobernador colonial inglés. Es recordado especialmente por su papel en la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos, aunque anteriormente participó ...

    • Early Life and Family
    • Early Military Career
    • Parliament, Politics, and Marriage
    • American War of Independence
    • Governor-General of India
    • Master of The Ordnance
    • Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
    • Treaty of Amiens
    • Death and Legacy
    • External Links

    Cornwallis was born in Grosvenor Square in London, though his family's estates were in Kent. He was the eldest son of Charles Cornwallis, 5th Baron Cornwallis. His mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, and niece of Sir Robert Walpole. His uncle, Frederick, was Archbishop of Canterbury. Frederick's twin brother, Edward, was a military officer, colonial governor, and founder of Halifax, Nova Scotia. His brother William became an Admiral in the Royal Navy. His other brother, James, eventually inherited the earldom from Cornwallis's son, Charles.[citation needed] The family was established at Brome Hall, near Eye, Suffolk, in the 14th century, and its members would represent the county in the House of Commons over the next three hundred years. Frederick Cornwallis, created a Baronet in 1627, fought for King Charles I, and followed King Charles II into exile. He was made Baron Cornwallis, of Eye in the County of Suffolk, in 1661, and by judicio...

    Cornwallis was educated at Eton College and Clare College, Cambridge. While playing hockey at Eton, his eye was injured by an accidental blow from Shute Barrington, later Bishop of Durham. He obtained his first commission as Ensign in the 1st Foot Guards, on 8 December 1757. He then sought and gained permission to engage in military studies abroad. After travelling on the continent with a Prussian officer, Captain de Roguin, he studied at the military academy of Turin. Upon completion of his studies in Turin in 1758, he traveled to Geneva, where he learned that British troops were to be sent to North America in the Seven Years' War. Although he tried to reach his regiment before it sailed from the Isle of Wight, he learnt upon reaching Cologne that it had already sailed. He managed instead to secure an appointment as a staff officer to Lord Granby. A year later, he participated at the Battle of Minden, a major battle that prevented a French invasion of Hanover. After the battle, he...

    In January 1760 Cornwallis became a Member of Parliament, entering the House of Commons for the village of Eye in Suffolk. He succeeded his father as 2nd Earl Cornwallis in 1762, which resulted in his elevation to the House of Lords. He became a protege of the leading Whig magnate, and future Prime Minister, Lord Rockingham. He was one of five peers who voted against the 1765 Stamp Act out of sympathy with the colonists. In the following years, he maintained a strong degree of support for the colonists during the tensions and crisis that led to the War of Independence. On 14 July 1768 he married Jemima Tullekin Jones, daughter of a regimental colonel. The union was, by all accounts, happy. They settled in Culford, Suffolk, where their children, Mary (28 June 1769 – 17 July 1840), and Charles were born. Jemima died on 14 April 1779.

    During the postwar years, Cornwallis had remained active in military matters. He became colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot in 1766.On 29 September 1775 he was promoted to major general. With the outbreak of the war in North America, Cornwallis put his previous misgivings aside and sought active service; proposing an expedition to the southern colonies.

    In 1786 Cornwallis was made a Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. The same year he accepted appointment as Governor-General and commander in chief in India. He had in 1782 been offered the governor-generalship only, but refused the post until he also received military command as well.

    Upon his return to Britain in 1794, he found it militarily engaged in the French Revolutionary Wars. After he was sent on an ultimately fruitless diplomatic mission to stop the fighting, he was appointed master of the ordnance, a post he held until 1798. In this position he was responsible for much of the British Army's military infrastructure, overseeing its storage depots and supply infrastructure, as well as commanding its artillery and engineering forces. He oversaw improvements to Britain's coastal defences, and was able to expand Woolwich Academy's artillery training program to address a significant shortage of qualified artillery officers. His attempts to significantly reform the military were hampered by the ongoing war.

    In June 1798 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Commander-in-Chief, Ireland. His appointment, which had been discussed as early as 1797, was made in response to the outbreak in late May of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. His appointment was greeted unfavourably by the Irish elite, who preferred his predecessor Lord Camden, and suspected he had liberal sympathies with the predominantly Catholic rebels. However, he struck up a good working relationship with Lord Castlereagh, whom he had appointed as Chief Secretary for Ireland. In his combined role as both Lord Lieutenant and Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Irish Army Cornwallis oversaw the defeat of both the Irish rebels and a French invasion force led by General Jean Humbert that landed in Connacht in August 1798. Panicked by the landing and the subsequent British defeat at the Battle of Castlebar, Pitt despatched thousands of reinforcements to Ireland, swelling British forces there to 60,000. The French invaders were defe...

    Expecting an opportunity to relax at home, Cornwallis was instead despatched not long after his return to take command of Eastern District with orders to lead the defences of eastern Britain against a threatened French invasion. Cornwallis was then sent to France to finalise peace terms with Bonaparte. The peace negotiations were made possible in Britain by financial pressure brought on by the ongoing wars and by Bonaparte's desire to consolidate his hold on the Continent. Pitt's resignation brought Henry Addington to power, and he appointed Cornwallis as plenipotentiary ministerto France. The negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Amiens, which Cornwallis signed on behalf the United Kingdom on 25 March 1802. The treaty ended the War of the Second Coalition, but the peace was short-lived. Actions by Bonaparte over the next year alarmed the other European powers, and the United Kingdom refused to withdraw forces from Malta as specified in the treaty. By May 1803 war was again declare...

    In 1805 Cornwallis was reappointed Governor-General of India by Pitt (who had again become Prime Minister), this time to curb the expansionist activity of Lord Wellesley (older brother of Colonel Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington). He arrived in India in July 1805, and died on 5 October of a fever at Gauspur in Ghazipur, at that time in the Varanasi kingdom. Cornwallis was buried there, overlooking the Ganges River, where his memorial is a protected monument maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India. There is also a memorial to him in St Paul’s Cathedral. His son Charles became the 2nd Marquess. Having five daughters but no sons, the marquessate became extinct on his death, but he was succeeded in his remaining titles by his uncle, the brother of the general, the Right Reverend James Cornwallis.[citation needed] Cornwallis appears in the 1835 novel Horse-Shoe Robinson by John Pendleton Kennedy, a historical romance set against the background of the Southern campaigns...

    "Archival material relating to Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis". UK National Archives.
    Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis at Find a Grave
    Portraits of Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis at the National Portrait Gallery, London
    Works by or about Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis at Internet Archive
  2. Charles Cornwallis, 1er Marqués de Cornwallis (Grosvenor Square, Londres, 31 de diciembre de 1738 - Gauspur, Ghazipur, India, 5 de octubre de 1805), militar y gobernador colonial inglés. Es recordado especialmente por su papel en la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos , aunque anteriormente participó en la Guerra de los Siete Años y más tarde también sirvió en la India e Irlanda .

  3. Charles Cornwallis, primer marqués y segundo conde de Cornwallis (1738-1805), sirvió como general en el ejército británico durante la Guerra de Independencia de Estados Unidos. Cornwallis ocupó el mando de las colonias durante toda la guerra y Frecuentemente era el homólogo de George Washington en el campo de batalla.

  4. Charles Cornwallis, I marqués de Cornwallis; Información personal; Nombre en inglés: Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis: Nacimiento: 31 de diciembre de 1738 o 1738 Grosvenor Square (Reino Unido) Fallecimiento: 5 de octubre de 1805 o 1805 Ghazipur (Raj británico) Causa de la muerte: Fiebre: Nacionalidad: Británica: Familia; Padres

  5. 02/01/2021 · Charles Cornwallis, primer marqués y segundo conde de Cornwallis. Charles Cornwallis, primer marqués y segundo conde de Cornwallis, en su totalidad Charles Cornwallis, primer marqués y segundo conde de Cornwallis, vizconde de Brome, barón de Cornwallis of Eye, (nacido el 31 de diciembre de 1738 en Londres, Inglaterra; muerto el 5 de octubre de 1805 en Ghazipur, India), soldado y estadista ...

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