Ferdinand I (German: Ferdinand I. 19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875) was the Emperor of Austria from March 1835 until his abdication in December 1848. He was also King of Hungary , Croatia and Bohemia (as Ferdinand V ), King of Lombardy–Venetia and holder of many other lesser titles (see grand title of the Emperor of Austria ).
Charles II, who was the youngest son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, had inherited the Inner Austrian provinces—Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gorizia, Fiume, Trieste and parts of Istria and Friuli—from his father in 1564. Being a daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, by Charles II's sister Anna, Maria of Bavaria was her husband's niece.
Married to William I, Duke of Mantua. Margaret: 16 February 1536: 12 March 1567: A nun. John: 10 April 1538: 20 March 1539: Died in childhood. Barbara: 30 April 1539: 19 September 1572: Married to Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara and Modena. Charles II, Archduke of Austria: 3 June 1540: 10 July 1590: Father of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor ...
Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him. Their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy.
In 1829, William married Princess Augusta, the daughter of Grand Duke Karl Friedrich of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and Maria Pavlovna, the sister of Nicholas I. Their marriage was outwardly stable, but not a very happy one. In 1840 his older brother became King of Prussia.
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (/ ˈ k uː l ɒ m,-l oʊ m, k uː ˈ l ɒ m,-ˈ l oʊ m /; French: ; 14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French officer, engineer, and physicist. He is best known as the eponymous discoverer of what is now called Coulomb's law , the description of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion.
Ferdinand was the eldest surviving son of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma.Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid.In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent who was excluded from all share in government by his parents and their favourite advisor and Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy.