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  1. Harald visited Norwegian servicemen training in the United States. The prince also made visits outside America, travelling north to visit Norwegian personnel at the training base "Little Norway" in Ontario, Canada. He attended The White Hall Country School from 1943. Prince Harald returned to Norway with his family at the war's end in 1945.

  2. Prince Harald was born on 8 October 1876 at his parents' country residence, the Charlottenlund Palace in Gentofte Municipality north of Copenhagen, during the reign of his paternal grandfather, King Christian IX. He was the fourth child and third son of Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark and his wife Louise of Sweden.

  3. 14/07/2020 · Prince Haraldr's very existence changes the balance of power in the universe and now that he is here there is no going back. Some would argue that it is what caused his birth that was a bigger change. Harry is Odin's son.

    • Early Life
    • Education
    • Years as Crown Prince
    • Family
    • Consecration Ceremony
    • Official Duties as King
    • Leisure Interests

    The first three years of Prince Harald’s life were spent in the peaceful surroundings of Skaugum. However, this came to an abrupt end on 9 April 1940, when German troops invaded Norway. To avoid being taken into custody by the occupying forces, the Royal Family, the Government and most members of the Norwegian Storting escaped from Oslo by train. When they reached Elverum, Crown Prince Olav and his family parted company. Crown Princess Märtha and the three children, Princess Ragnhild, Princess Astrid and Prince Harald, fled to safety across the border to Sweden. After several months in Sweden, the Crown Princess and her children travelled to the USA by sea. While King Haakon and Crown Prince Olav stayed in London, the Crown Princess lived with the children in the outskirts of Washington, DC, until 1945, when peace was declared. Crown Prince Olav returned to Norway on 13 May 1945, where he was joined by King Haakon and the other members of the Royal Family on 7 June. The homecoming o...

    After the liberation, Prince Harald attended Smestad school in Oslo. Aside from the presence of a security guard stationed in the hall, the Prince’s school years differed little from those of the other children. To enable the Prince to comply with the demands of a modern monarchy, his upbringing emphasised the importance of close ties to the Norwegian people and contemporary society. Prince Harald completed his upper secondary education at Oslo Cathedral School, receiving his school-leaving certificate in 1955. Prince Harald entered the Norwegian Cavalry Officers’ Training School and went on to finish his military education at the Military Academy in 1959. Upon completion of his compulsory military service, the Crown Prince went to Oxford for further study. He attended Balliol College from 1960 to 1962, studying social science, history and economics.

    King Haakon VII died on 21 September 1957, and Prince Harald became Crown Prince, attending the Council of State for the first time. The following year he acted as Regent in the King’s absence for the first time. The Crown Prince worked closely alongside his father, King Olav V, and carried out an increasing number of official tasks, such as travelling with trade delegations to promote Norwegian industry abroad. In 1960 Crown Prince Harald made his first official state visit abroad, travelling to the USA in connection with the 50th anniversary of the American-Scandinavian Foundation.

    In March 1968 it was announced that King Olav had given permission for the Crown Prince to marry Miss Sonja Haraldsen from Vinderen in Oslo. The couple had known each other for nine years before their marriage was approved. The decision to be taken by the King was not only a family matter, but also an affair of state that could have implications for the future of the monarchy. After consultations with the Presidium of the Storting, the parliamentary leaders and the Government, the King gave his consent for the Crown Prince to marry a commoner. The wedding was held in Oslo Cathedral on 29 August 1968. The newlywed Crown Prince and Crown Princess were received with great jubilation by people throughout the country. The Crown Princess assumed her share of the official duties. King Harald and Queen Sonja have travelled extensively in Norway and abroad, both together and separately. They have two children, Princess Märtha Louise, born on 22 September 1971, and Crown Prince Haakon, born o...

    When King Olav fell ill in the spring of 1990, the King’s functions as Head of State were filled by the Crown Prince Regent. In accordance with the Constitution, Crown Prince Harald acceded to the Throne when King Olav passed away on 17 January 1991. Like his father and grandfather before him, King Harald adopted the motto “We give our all for Norway.” Four days later, King Harald swore an oath to uphold the Constitution in the Storting. The ceremony was also attended by Queen Sonja, marking the first time in 69 years that a Norwegian queen had been present in the main chamber of the Storting. In accordance with their own wishes, the King and Queen were consecrated in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 23 June 1991. The consecration of Norwegian kings dates back more than 1,000 years in Norway, and was previously carried out during the coronation of a new monarch. In 1908 the Storting repealed the article in the Constitution relating to coronation. King Olav, who was keenly intereste...

    Since the introduction of parliamentarism in 1884, the official duties of the King have been primarily ceremonial as the custodian of royal tradition. The King heads the Council of State Fridays, and formally opens the new session of the Storting each year in October. No acts of legislation or decisions approved by the Council of State are valid until sanctioned by the King and countersigned by the prime minister. While the language of the Constitution still states that the executive power is vested in the King, the actual power lies with the Government. The King has an important role to play during a change of government. Usually, the retiring prime minister will advise the King on who should assume the role of the new prime minister. The King and Queen pay official state visits to other countries, and act as host to foreign heads of state visiting Norway. The King holds official audiences at the Palace for newly-appointed ambassadors of foreign countries who are delivering their c...

    The Royal Family takes great pleasure in sports and outdoor recreational activities. King Harald enjoys spending time in the wilderness, and is an active hunter and fisherman. The King is deeply concerned with environmental issues, and served for 20 years as the President of the Norwegian chapter of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF Norge). The King and the Royal Family have attended the Olympics on many occasions. The King and Queen were actively involved in connection with the 1994 Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer. The King served as honorary chair of the Lillehammer Olympic Organising Committee. The King was Chairman of the Advisory Board of the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in 1982. During the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo in 2011 he was present as an interested spectator at all the events. In January 2011 the King was awarded the Sports Gala Honorary Award by the Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports at the annual Sports Gala in...

  4. Prince Haraldr's very existence changes the balance of power in the universe and now that he is here there is no going back. Some would argue that it is what caused his birth that was a bigger change. Harry is Odin's son.

    • Epithets
    • Early Life
    • Exile in The East
    • King of Norway
    • Invasion of England
    • Personal Life
    • Issue
    • Legacy
    • Sources
    • External Links

    Harald's most famous epithet is Old Norse harðráði, which has been translated variously as 'hard in counsel', 'tyrannical', ‘tyrant’, ‘hard-ruler’, ‘ruthless’, ‘savage in counsel’, ‘tough’, and ‘severe’. While Judith Jesch has argued for 'severe' as the best translation, Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes prefer 'resolute'. Harðráði has traditionally been Anglicised as 'Hardrada', though Judith Jesch characterises this form as 'a bastard Anglicisation of the original epithet in an oblique case'.This epithet predominates in the later Icelandic saga-tradition. However, in a number of independent sources associated with the British Isles, mostly earlier than the Icelandic sagas, Harald is given epithets deriving from Old Norse hárfagri(literally 'hair-beautiful'). These sources include: 1. Manuscript D of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ('Harold Harfagera', under the year 1066) and the related histories by Orderic Vitalis ('Harafagh', re events in 1066), John of Worcester ('Harvagra', s.aa. 1...

    Harald was born in Ringerike, Norway in 1015 (or possibly 1016)[a] to Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and her second husband Sigurd Syr. Sigurd was a petty king of Ringerike, and among the strongest and wealthiest chieftains in the Uplands. Through his mother Åsta, Harald was the youngest of King Olaf II of Norway / Olaf Haraldsson's (later Saint Olaf) three half-brothers.In his youth, Harald displayed traits of a typical rebel with big ambitions, and admired Olaf as his role model. He thus differed from his two older brothers, who were more similar to their father, down-to-earth and mostly concerned with maintaining the farm. The Icelandic sagas, in particular Snorri Sturluson in Heimskringla, claim that Sigurd, like Olaf's father, was a great-grandson of King Harald Fairhair in the male line. Most modern scholars believe that the ancestors attributed to Harald Hardrada's father, along with other parts of the Fairhair genealogy, are inventions reflecting the political and social expectations...

    To Kievan Rus'

    After the defeat at the Battle of Stiklestad, Harald managed to escape with the aid of Rögnvald Brusason (later Earl of Orkney) to a remote farm in Eastern Norway. He stayed there for some time to heal his wounds, and thereafter (possibly up to a month later) journeyed north over the mountains to Sweden. A year after the Battle of Stiklestad, Harald arrived in Kievan Rus' (referred to in the sagas as Garðaríki or Svíþjóð hin mikla). He likely spent at least part of his time in the town of Sta...

    In Byzantine service

    After a few years in Kievan Rus', Harald and his force of around 500 men moved on south to Constantinople (Miklagard), the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (later known as the Byzantine Empire), probably in 1033 or 1034, where they joined the Varangian Guard. Although the Flateyjarbók maintains that Harald at first sought to keep his royal identity a secret, most sources agree that Harald and his men's reputation was well known in the east at the time. While the Varangian Guard was primari...

    Back to Kievan Rus'

    Harald became extremely rich during his time in the east, and secured the wealth collected in Constantinople by shipments to Kievan Rus' for safekeeping (with Yaroslav the Wise acting as safekeeper for his fortune). The sagas note that aside from the significant spoils of battle he had retained, he had participated three times in polutasvarf (loosely translated as "palace-plunder"), a term which implies either the pillaging of the palace exchequer on the death of the emperor, or perhaps the d...

    Return to Scandinavia

    Seeking to regain for himself the kingdom lost by his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson, Harald began his journey westwards in early 1045, departing from Novgorod (Holmgard) to Staraya Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg) where he obtained a ship. His journey went through Lake Ladoga, down the Neva River, and then into the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea. He arrived in Sigtuna in Sweden, probably at the end of 1045 or in early 1046. When he arrived in Sweden, according to the skald Tjodolv Arnorsson, his ship...

    Invasions of Denmark

    Harald also wanted to re-establish Magnus's rule over Denmark, and in the long term probably sought to restore Cnut the Great's "North Sea Empire" in its entirety. While his first proposal to invade Denmark fell through, the next year Harald embarked on what would turn into constant warfare against Sweyn, from 1048 almost yearly until 1064. Similar to his campaigns (then together with Sweyn) against Magnus's rule in Denmark, most of his campaigns against Sweyn consisted of swift and violent r...

    Domestic opposition

    According to historian Knut Helle, Harald completed the first phase of what he has termed the "national territorial unification of Norway". Having forced his way to the kingship, Harald would have to convince the aristocracy that he was the right person to rule Norway alone. To establish domestic alliances, he married Tora Torbergsdatter of one of the most powerful Norwegian families. The primary opposition to Harald's rule would be the descendants of Haakon Sigurdsson, from the powerful dyna...

    Background and preparations

    Accepting he could not conquer Denmark, Harald switched attention to England; his claim was based on a 1038 agreement between Magnus and its previous ruler, Harthacnut, who died childless in 1042. This stated if either died, the other would inherit their lands; however, it was unlikely Magnus assumed he would gain the English throne without fighting. Harthacnut himself preferred his brother, Edward the Confessor, who became king with the backing of Earl Godwin, father of Harold Godwinson. Pla...

    Early raids, invasion, and Battle of Fulford

    After embarking from Tynemouth, Harald and Tostig probably landed at the River Tees. They then entered Cleveland, and started plundering the coast. They encountered the first resistance at Scarborough, where Harald's demand for surrender was opposed. In the end, Harald resorted to burning down the town and this action led to other Northumbrian towns surrendering to him. After further raiding, Harald and Tostig sailed down the Humber, disembarking at Riccall on 20 September. News of the early...

    Battle of Stamford Bridge

    Early on 25 September, Harald and Tostig departed their landing place at Riccall with most of their forces, but left a third of their forces behind. They brought only light armour, as they expected to just meet the citizens of York, as they had agreed the day before, at Stamford Bridge to decide on who should manage the town under Harald. Once there Harald saw Godwinson's forces approaching, heavily armed and armoured, and greatly outnumbering Harald's. Although (according to non-saga sources...

    Harald is described by Snorri Sturluson to have been physically "larger than other men and stronger". He is said to have had light hair and beard, a long "upper beard" (moustache), and that one of his eyebrows was somewhat higher situated than the other. He also reportedly had big hands and feet, and could measure five ells in height. It is not known whether Snorri's description of Harald's physical appearance actually represents historical facts. The tall stature of Harald is also substantiated by a story that relates that before the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Harold Godwinson offered Tostig back the earldom of Northumbria, and Harald "six feet of the ground of England, or perhaps more seeing that he is taller than most men" (according to Henry of Huntingdon)or "six feet of English ground, or seven feet as he was taller than other men" (according to Snorri Sturluson). Harald himself composed skaldic poetry. According to Lee M. Hollander, composing poetry was normal for Norwegian ki...

    Harald married Elisiv of Kiev (c. 1025 – after 1066) around 1044/45,and they had an unknown number, possibly several children. According to Snorri Sturluson, they had two daughters: 1. Ingegerd (c.1050 – c.1120). Married first to the future Olaf I of Denmark, and after his death, to the future Philip of Sweden. 2. Maria (died 25 September 1066). Promised away for marriage to Eystein Orre (brother of Tora Torbergsdatter), but reportedly died on Orkney the same day that Harald (and Eystein) died at Stamford Bridge. According to the sagas, Harald married Tora Torbergsdatter (c. 1025 – after 1066) around 1048. Some modern historians have disputed this, since Harald in that case would be in a bigamous marriage, as he was still married to Elisiv. It is nonetheless possible that such a marriage could take place in Norway in the 11th century, and although Harald had two wives, only Elisiv is noted to have held the title of Queen.Harald and Tora had at least two children: 1. Magnus II (c.104...

    Burial

    A year after his death at Stamford Bridge, Harald's body was moved to Norway and buried at the Mary Church in Nidaros (Trondheim). About a hundred years after his burial, his body was reinterred at the Helgeseter Priory, which was demolished in the 17th century. On 25 September 2006, the 940th anniversary of Harald's death, the newspaper Aftenposten published an article on the poor state of Norway's ancient royal burial sites, including that of Harald, which is reportedly located underneath a...

    Modern memorials

    Two monuments have been erected in honour of Harald in Oslo, the city which he is traditionally held to have founded. A bronze relief on granite by Lars Utne depicting Harald on horseback was raised on the eponymously named square Harald Hardrådes plass in 1905. In 1950, a large relief by Anne Grimdalen, also of Harald on horseback, was unveiled on the western façade of the Oslo City Hall.

    In popular culture

    Harald appears in a number of historical fiction books. In H.P. Lovecraft's novella The Call of Cthulhu, one key character "lay in the Old Town of King Harold Haardrada, which kept alive the name of Oslo during all the centuries that the greater city masqueraded as “Christiana”." Justin Hill's Viking Fire is the second in his Conquest Trilogy, and tells the life of Harald in his own voice. He serves as the protagonist in two children's books by Henry Treece, The Last of the Vikings/The Last V...

    Barlow, Frank (1970). Edward the Confessor. University of California. ISBN 978-0520016712.
    Beeler, John (1971). Warfare in Feudal Europe: 730–1200. Cornell University. ISBN 978-0-8014-9120-7.
    Bibikov, Mikhail (2004). "Byzantine Sources for the History of Balticum and Scandinavia". In Volt, Ivo; Päll, Janika (eds.). Byzanto-Nordica 2004. Tartu, Estonia: Tartu University. ISBN 9949-11-266-4.
    Blöndal, Sigfús (2007). Benedikz, Benedikt S. (ed.). The Varangians of Byzantium. Cambridge University. ISBN 978-0-521-21745-3.
    Saga of Harald Hardrade by Snorri Sturluson (c.1230), English translation
    An Account of the Ancient History of the Norwegian Kings by Theodoric the Monk (c.1180), English translation
  5. Prince Haraldr's very existence changes the balance of power in the universe and now that he is here there is no going back. Some would argue that it is what caused his birth that was a bigger change. Harry is Odin's son.

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