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  1. The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel ( German: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel ), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was directly subject to the Emperor. The state was created in 1567 when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided upon the death of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse.

    • Absolute monarchy
    • Kassel
  2. Charles of Hesse-Kassel ( German: Karl von Hessen-Kassel; 3 August 1654 – 23 March 1730), of the House of Hesse, was the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1670 to 1730.

    • Overview
    • Early life
    • Marriages and children
    • Ruler

    Frederick II was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, and raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward international diplomacy.

    Frederick was born at Kassel in Hesse, the son of William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and his wife Dorothea Wilhelmine of Saxe-Zeitz. His paternal grandfather was Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, and his paternal uncle was Frederick I of Sweden. His education was initially entrusted to Colonel August Moritz von Donop and then from 1726 to 1733 to the Swiss theologian and philosopher, Jean-Pierre de Crousaz.

    On 8 May 1740, by proxy in London, and on 28 June 1740 in person in Kassel, Frederick married Princess Mary, fourth daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach. They had four sons: William William I, Elector of Hesse Charles Frederick, father of Prince William of Hesse-Kassel and grandfather of Queen Louise of Denmark. In December 1745, Frederick landed in Scotland with 6000 Hessian troops to support his father-in-law, George II of Great Britain, in dealing with the Jacob

    After being formally separated from his wife in 1755, Friedrich entered active service in the Prussian military. In 1760, he succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Despite Frederick's Catholicism, the principality remained Calvinist, and Frederick's children were raised as Protestants in Denmark. During the 17th and 18th centuries, it was a fairly widespread practice for smaller principalities to rent out troops to other princes. However, the practise was carried to excess in Hesse-K

    • 17th and 18th Centuries
    • 19th Century
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    Since the early years of the Reformation the House of Hesse was clearly Protestant, with only a few exceptions. Landgraves Philip I, William V, and Maurice married descendants of King George of Bohemia. From William VI onwards, mothers of the heads of Hesse-Kassel were always descended from William the Silent, the leader of the Dutch to independence on basis of Calvinism. The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel expanded in 1604 when Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, inherited the Landgraviate of Hesse-Marburg from his childless uncle, Louis IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Marburg(1537-1604). During the Thirty Years' War, Calvinist Hesse-Kassel proved to be Sweden's most loyal German ally. Landgrave William V and, after his death in 1637, his widow Amelia of Hanau, a granddaughter of William the Silent, as regent supported the Protestant cause and the Frenchand Swedes throughout the war and maintained an army, garrisoning many strongholds, while Hesse-Kassel itself was occupied by Imperial troops....

    Following the reorganization of the German states during the German mediatisation of 1803, the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel was raised to the Electorate of Hesse and Landgrave William IX was elevated to Imperial Elector, taking the title William I, Elector of Hesse. The principality thus became known as Kurhessen, although still usually referred to as Hesse-Kassel. In 1806, William I was dispossessed by Napoleon Bonaparte for his support of the Kingdom of Prussia, and Kassel became the capital of a new Kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte as king. The elector was restored following Napoleon's defeat in 1813, and although the Holy Roman Empire was now defunct, William retained his title of Elector, as it gave him pre-eminence over his cousin, the Grand Duke of Hesse. From 1813 onwards, the Electorate of Hesse was an independent country and, after 1815, a member of the German Confederation. William's grandson, Elector Frederick William, sided with the Austri...

    In 1918, Hesse-Nassau became part of the Free State of Prussia until 1944. From 1944-45 as part of Nazi Germany, it was divided into the Prussian provinces of Kurhessen and Nassau. From 1945-46, it was renamed Greater Hesse (Großhessen) and was part of the US occupation zone in Germany. From 1946 onwards, it was reorganised into the state of Hesse (Bundesland Hesse), in the Federal Republic of Germany'. In 1918, Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, younger brother of the head of the house and a brother-in-law of Emperor William II, was elected by the pro-German Finnish government to be King of Finland, but he never reigned. In 1968, the head of the House of Hesse-Kassel became the head of the entire House of Hesse due to the extinction of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt.

    The village of Hessen Cassel, Indiana near Fort Wayne, founded by German immigrants, is named for the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel.

    List of rulers of Hesse
    List of Swedish monarchs
    List of Finnish monarchs
    Line of succession to the Hesse Throne
    • King of Sweden 1720-1751
    • 1866 Annexed by Prussia
    • 1918

    William IV (1532 – 1592) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

    1. William IV (1532 – 1592) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, eldest son of Philip “the Magnanimous” (1504-1567) Landgrave of Hesse. Married Sabine of Württemberg (1549 – 1581) daughter of Christopher, Duke of Württemberg

    Maurice (1572 – 1632) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

    1. Maurice (1572 – 1632) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.Married firstly Agnes of Solms-Laubach (1578 –1602) daughter of Count John George of Solms-Laubach and secondly Juliane of Nassau--Siegen (1587 – 1643) daughter of John VII, Count of Nassau-Siegen.

    William V (1602 – 1637) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

    1. William V (1602 – 1637) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Married Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg (1602–1651) daughter of Philip Louis II, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg.

    William I (1743 – 1821) Elector of Hesse

    1. William I (IX) (1743 – 1821) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Elector of Hesse from 1803 to 1806 and from 1813.1806 annexed by the Kingdom of Westphalia, 1813 restored. Grandmaster of the House-order of the Golden Lion. Grandmaster of the Pour la vertu militaire. Founder and Grandmaster of the Order of the Iron Helmet in 1814. Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. Knight of the Order of the White Elephant. Knight of the Garter. Married Princess Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark and Norway (174...

    William II (1777 – 1847) Elector of Hesse

    1. William II (1777 – 1847) Elector of Hesse. Grandmaster of the House-order of the Golden Lion. Grandmaster of the Pour la vertu militaire. Grandmaster of the Order of the Iron Helmet. Knight of the Order of St. Andrew. Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. Knight of the White Elephant. Married firstly Princess Augusta of Prussia (1780 – 1841) daughter of Frederick William II, King of Prussia, secondly morganatically Emilie Ortlöpp (1791–1843)created Countess of Reichenbach-Lessonitz in 18...

    Frederick William I (1802 – 1875) Elector of Hesse

    1. Frederick William I (1802 – 1875) Elector of Hesse until 1866. Grandmaster of the House-order of the Golden Lion. Grandmaster of the Pour la vertu militaire. Grandmaster of the Order of the Iron Helmet. Knight of the Order of St. Andrew. Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. Married morganatically Gertrude Falkenstein (1803 – 1882) created Countess of Schaumburg in 1831 and Princess of Hanau and to Horowitz in 1853, daughter of Johann Gottfried Falkenstein. Their sons were Counts von Sch...

    Frederick (1747 – 1837) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim

    1. Frederick (1747 – 1837) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim, younger son of Frederick II (1720 – 1785) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim. Knight of the House-order of the Golden Lion. Knight of the Pour la vertu militaire. Knight of the Royal Guelphic Order. Knight of the Order of Philip the Magnanimous.Married Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen (1762 – 1823) daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Usingen

    Wilhelm I (1787–1867) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim

    1. Wilhelm I (1787–1867) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim.Knight of the White Elephant. Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog.Married Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark (1789–1864) daughter of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway.

    Frederick William (II) (1820 – 1884) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

    1. Frederick William (II) (1820 – 1884) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Succeeded, as titular Prince-elector of Hesse after the death of Frederick William I (1802 – 1875) Elector of Hesse. Knight of the White Elephant. Knight of the Order of St.Andrew. Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. Knight of the Order of the Seraphim. Married firstly Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia (1825–1844) daughter of Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia and secondly Princess Anna of Prussia (1836–1918) daughter of Prince Ch...

  3. Hesse-Kassel, former landgraviate of Germany, formed in 1567 in the division of old Hesse. In 1567 Hesse was partitioned among four sons of Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous, Hesse-Kassel going to William IV the Wise. Hesse-Kassel was the largest, most important, and most northerly of the four

  4. 17/07/2019 · Friedrich II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was the husband of Princess Mary of Great Britain, daughter of King George II of Great Britain. He became famous during the American Revolution as a supplier of thousands of Hessian soldiers who fought on behalf of the British. Born on August 14, 1720, in Kassel in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel, now in ...

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