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  1. Hace 10 horas · Isabella of Portugal (24 October 1503 – 1 May 1539) was the empress consort and queen consort of her cousin Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the ruler of the Spanish Empire.

  2. Hace 10 horas · Catholic. Jadwiga ( Polish: [jaˈdviɡa] ( listen); 1373 or 1374 – 17 July 1399), also known as Hedwig ( Hungarian: Hedvig ), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, and his wife Elizabeth of Bosnia.

    • Early Life
    • Early Reign
    • Mid-Reign
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    Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often called Edward of Windsor in his early years. The reign of his father, Edward II, was a particularly problematic period of English history. One source of contention was the king's inactivity, and repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland. Another controversial issue was th...

    Personal rule

    It was not long before the new reign also met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Mortimer, who was now the de facto ruler of England. Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, and his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park in the county of Durham, and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328. Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew...

    War in Scotland

    Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332. They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in place of the infant DavidII, but Balliol was soon expelled and was fo...

    Sluys

    In 1337, Philip VI of France confiscated the English king's Duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. Instead of seeking a peaceful resolution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, as his father had done, Edward responded by laying claim to the French crown as the grandson of Philip IV. The French rejected this based on the precedents for agnatic succession set in 1316 and 1322. Instead, they upheld the rights of PhilipIV's nephew, King PhilipVI (an agnatic descendant of t...

    Cost of war

    Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. The regency council at home was frustrated by the mounting national debt, while the king and his commanders on the Continent were angered by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds. To deal with the situation, Edward himself returned to England, arriving in London unannounced on 30 November 1340. Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged th...

    Crecy and Poitiers

    By the early 1340s, it was clear that Edward's policy of alliances was too costly, and yielded too few results. The following years saw more direct involvement by English armies, including in the Breton War of Succession, but these interventions also proved fruitless at first. Edward defaulted on Florentine loans of 1,365,000 florins, resulting in the ruin of the lenders. A major change came in July 1346, when Edward staged a major offensive, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men. H...

    Legislation

    The middle years of Edward's reign were a period of significant legislative activity. Perhaps the best-known piece of legislation was the Statute of Labourers of 1351, which addressed the labour shortage problem caused by the Black Death. The statute fixed wages at their pre-plague level and checked peasant mobility by asserting that lords had first claim on their men's services. In spite of concerted efforts to uphold the statute, it eventually failed due to competition among landowners for...

    Parliament and taxation

    Parliament as a representative institution was already well established by the time of EdwardIII, but the reign was nevertheless central to its development. During this period, membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament. This happened as parliament gradually developed into a bicameral institution, composed of a House of Lords and a House of Commons. Yet it was not in the Lords, but in the C...

    Chivalry and national identity

    Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, EdwardIII successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects. Both EdwardI and EdwardII had been limited in their policy towards the nobility, allowing the creation of few new peerages during the sixty years preceding EdwardIII's reign. EdwardIII reversed this trend wh...

    While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham. A relativ...

    Edward III enjoyed unprecedented popularity in his own lifetime, and even the troubles of his later reign were never blamed directly on the king himself. His contemporary Jean Froissart wrote in his Chronicles: "His like had not been seen since the days of King Arthur." This view persisted for a while but, with time, the image of the king changed. ...

    Sons

    1. Edward the Black Prince (1330–1376), eldest son and heir apparent, born at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire. He predeceased his father, having in 1361 married his cousin Joan, Countess of Kent, by whom he had issue: King RichardII; 2. William of Hatfield (1337–1337), second son, born at Hatfield, South Yorkshire, died shortly after birth and was buried in York Minster; 3. Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence (1338–1368), third son (second surviving son), born at Antwerp in the Duchy of Bra...

    Daughters

    1. Isabella of England (1332–1379/82), born at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, in 1365 married Enguerrand VII de Coucy, 1st Earl of Bedford, by whom she had issue; 2. Joan of England (1333/4–1348), born in the Tower of London; she was betrothed to Peter of Castile but died of the black death en route to Castile before the marriage could take place. Peter's two daughters from his union with María de Padilla married Joan's younger brothers John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Edmund of Langl...

    Edward III at BBC History
    The Medieval Sourcebook has some sources relating to the reign of EdwardIII:
    "Archival material relating to Edward III of England". UK National Archives.
  3. 07/05/2022 · Cape Elizabeth is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States. The town is part of the Portland – South Portland – Biddeford, Maine, metropolitan statistical area. As of the 2020 census, Cape Elizabeth had a population of 9,535.

  4. Hace 1 día · Anna of Austria (2 November 1549 – 26 October 1580) was Queen of Spain by marriage to her uncle, King Philip II of Spain. During her last days of life she was also briefly Queen of Portugal . Contents 1 Life 2 Marriage 3 Queen of Spain 4 Children 5 Ancestry 6 References 7 Literature Life Anna as an Austrian Archduchess

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