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Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (Kruszewnia, Prusia, 9 de abril de 1865-Múnich, 20 de diciembre de 1937) fue un general alemán durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, vencedor de la batalla de Lieja y la batalla de Tannenberg, ambas en 1914.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, politician and military theorist. He achieved fame during World War I for his central role in the German victories at Liège and Tannenberg in 1914.
29/10/2009 · Erich Ludendorff embodied the strengths and weaknesses of the imperial German army in the twentieth century. He is frequently described as representing everything negative in the rising generation ...
- Early Weltkrieg
- Eastern Front
- Rise to Power
- de Facto-Dictator of The German Empire
- Manifestation of Power
- The Flight of Icarus
Ludendorff was born on 9 April 1865 in Kruszewnia near Posen, Province of Posen, Kingdom of Prussia, the third of six children of August Wilhelm Ludendorff (1833–1905). He had a stable and comfortable childhood, growing up on his families' small farm, and enrolling in the Hauptkadettenschule near Berlin in 1882. In 1885, Ludendorff was commissioned as a subaltern into the 57th Infantry Regiment, then at Wesel in the Rhine Province. He rose rapidly and was a senior staff officer at the headquarters of the Fifth Corps from 1902 to 1904. Next he joined the Great German General Staff in Berlin, which was commanded by Alfred von Schlieffen, and lobbied vigorously for an expansion of the military in 1913, shrugging off informal restrictions regarding the involvement of military personnel in politics.
At the outbreak of war in the summer of 1914, Ludendorff was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff to the German Second Army under General Karl von Bülow. His assignment was largely due to his previous work investigating defenses at Liège, Belgium. At the beginning of the Battle of Liège, Ludendorff was an observer with the 14th Brigade, which was to infiltrate the city at night and secure the bridges before they could be destroyed. The brigade commander was killed on 5 August, so Ludendorff led the successful assault to occupy the city and its citadel. In the following days, two of the forts guarding the city were taken by desperate frontal infantry attacks, while the remaining forts were smashed by huge Krupp 42-cm and Austro-Hungarian Skoda 30-cm howitzers. By 16 August, all the forts around Liège had fallen, allowing the German First Army to advance. Celebrated as the Victor of Liège, Ludendorff was awarded Germany's highest military decoration for gallantry, the Pour le Mérite, prese...
German mobilization earmarked a single army, the Eighth, to defend their eastern frontier. Two Russian armies invaded East Prussia earlier than expected, the Eighth Army commanders panicked and were fired by the Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL), the German Supreme Army Command . The OHL assigned Ludendorff as the new Chief of Staff, while the War Cabinet chose a retired general, Paul von Hindenburg, as commander. They first met on their private train heading east. They agreed that they had to annihilate the nearest Russian army before they tackled the second. On arrival, they discovered that General Max Hoffmannhad already shifted much of the 8th Army by rail to the south to do just that, in an amazing feat of logistical planning. Nine days later the Eighth Army surrounded most of a Russian army at Tannenberg, taking 92,000 prisoners in one of the great victories in German history. Twice during the battle Ludendorff wanted to break off, fearing that the second Russian army was about to s...
While the war in the East went mostly in favor of the Germans, the war in the West was stuck in an eternal stalemate. Falkenhayn, who did not achieve what he had promised, namely kicking the French out of the war within the first few months, was replaced as Chief of the General Staff (OHL) by Hindenburg on 29 August 1916. Ludendorff was again appointed Hindenburg's chief of staff as first Quartermaster general, and additionally he was promoted to General of the Infantry. Reichskanzler Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg was not sure about this decision; He argued that Ludendorff was only doing great at a time of success, and that he would lose his nerve as soon as things would begin to go badly. With Romania joining the war on the Allied side, the Russians were not the only problem on the Eastern Front anymore, but thanks to clever strategies, a Romanian invasion of Transylvania was repelled. Then Romania was invaded from the south by German, Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, and Ottoman troop...
Ludendorff had one goal: "One thing was certain – the power must be in my hands." As stipulated by the Constitution of the German Empire the government was run by civil servants appointed by the Kaiser. On Ludendorff's behalf however, the economy became more and more controlled by the OHL, as he was confident that army officers were superior to civilians. The Kaiser didn't protest and slowly lost the control over German affairs, leading to his retreat from public. As overseer of the German economy, Ludendorff aligned himself with Germany's most important industrialists and began setting overambitious targets for military production, the so-called "Hindenburg Programme". His plan was to double German industrial production and to greatly increase the output of munitions and weapons. Implementation of the program was assigned to General Wilhelm Groener, a staff officer who had directed the Field Railway Service effectively. Despite being so powerful, Ludendorff never had thoughts of be...
In early 1917, a conference was held in the castle of Pleß, in Silesia. The Kaiser, Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg and many high ranking military officials including Hindenburg and Ludendorff once more met to argue about starting unrestricted submarine warfare. While the OHL, the Reichstag and many army officials were in favour of it, von Bethmann-Hollweg as well as the head of the Imperial Naval Office Eduard von Capellestrictly opposed the move and warned the Kaiser once more to not agree to it. The Kaiser, wary of Ludendorff's growing influence, ultimately decided against it. Ludendorff, greatly disappointed by the Kaiser's reasoning and decision making, acknowledged that he needed to get rid of Bethmann-Hollweg. From this point on Ludendorff and his clique of high ranking military and navy officials decided to discredit Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg at every single turn. Later that year, the Kaiser and the chancellor met to debate on what wargoals Germany should purs...
Ludendorff was responsible for the huge territorial losses forced on the Russians in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. During the peace negotiations with the Russians his representative kept demanding the economic concessions coveted by German industrialists. The "Victory in the East", as it was stylized in government-approved media, the repelling of the Great Allied Spring Offensive and the victory over Greeceafter an successful Operation Teutoburg in mid-1918 increased Hindenburg's and Ludendorff's popularity and influence even more. However, despite the German successes on the field, the common people became more and more weary of the war. Many citizens started to support more radical organizations that proposed to finally end the war, among them the popular socialist USPD. In late autumn of 1918, the radical left decided that the right time had come to overthrow the government and prepared for a peaceful revolution. Massive nationwide anti-war demonstrations and strikes against the g...
With enough reserves, both in material and manpower, the Great German and Austrian Spring Offensive was launched on 2nd March 1919. It would be another success for the powerful duo - By mid 1918, Italy had capitulated after an Austro-German offensive has reached Venice, and by August, an armistice between the Central Powers and France was signed, with German soldiers parading through Paris like in 1870/71. In December, the rest of the European Entente agreed to sign a ceasefire as well. Everything went exactly as Ludendorff and Hindenburg had envisioned it. At the Versailles Peace Conference, the French were forced to make high concessions, including giving up all of their Sub-Saharan colonies, paying high reparations and much more. At this point, Germany had become the most powerful nation in Central Europe, mainly because of the deeds of Hindenburg and Ludendorff. However, new problems soon arose. Germany and her allies were now completely isolated within Europe - And almost all o...
- Síntesis biográfica
- Carrera Militar
- Actividades Postguerra
Erich Ludendorff, el tercero de seis hijos, nació cerca de Posen , el 9 de abril de 1865. Su padre, August Wilhelm Ludendorff (1833-1905), era un terrateniente. Se educó en la Escuela de Cadetes en Plon. Un estudiante inteligente que se coloca en una clase dos años por delante de su grupo de edad real. En 1885, Ludendorff fue comisionado como segundo teniente en el Regimiento de Infantería 57. Más tarde sirvió en el Batallón de Marina 2 y la Guardia de Granaderos del 8 º. En 1893 asistió a la Academia de Guerra y al año siguiente fue nombrado miembro del Estado Mayor General del Ejército Alemán . En 1911fue ascendido al rango de coronel.
Ludendorff trabajó con el general Alfred von Schlieffen en lo que se conoció como el "Plan Schlieffen". Plan de Schlieffen implicaba el uso de 90% de las fuerzas armadas alemanas para atacar a Francia . Ante el temor de las fortalezas francesas en la frontera con Alemania, Alfred von Schlieffen sugirió un ataque guadaña a través de Holanda , Bélgica y Luxemburgo. El resto del ejército alemán se enviará a las posiciones defensivas en el este para detener el avance ruso esperado. Ludendorff utilizó su influencia para persuadir al Reichstag para aumentar el gasto militar y la adopción de una política exterior más agresiva. Esto molestó al Partido Social Demócrata y en enero de 1913Ludendorff fue despedido del Estado Mayor General y se vio obligado a regresar a los derechos de los regimientos y se le dio el mando del 39 º Regimiento de Fusileros en Dusseldorf. En el estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial, fue nombrado Jefe de Estado Mayor en el este de Prusia. Trabajar con Paul von Hind...
Después de la firma del Armisticio, Ludendorff se trasladó a Suecia, donde escribió libros y artículos que afirman que el invicto Ejército alemán había sido "apuñalado por la espalda" por políticos de izquierda en Alemania. También publicó sus memorias, "Mis Recuerdos de la Guerra", 1914-1918 (1920). Ludendorff finalmente regresó a Alemania donde participó, tanto en el "Putsch de Kapp" (marzo de 1920) y el "Putsch de Munich" (noviembre de 1923). Al año siguiente se convirtió en uno de los primeros partidarios del partido nazi en el Reichstag. De 1924 a 1928 fue miembro del Parlamento nacional-socialista. Erich Ludendorff murió el 20 de diciembre de 1937 en Munich, Alemania.Datos biográficos de Erich Ludendorff. Disponible en:Biografías y Vidas. Consultado el 2 de mayo de 2012Biografía de Erich Ludendorff. Disponible en:Spartacus educativo.Consultado el 2 de mayo de 2012
- 20 de diciembre de 1937Munich, Alemania
- Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff. Militar y político alemán (Kruszewnia, Posnania, Prusia, 1865 - Múnich, 1937). Sus brillantes cualidades militares le hicieron destacar desde el comienzo de la Primera Guerra Mundial (1914-18), cuando tomó la ciudad belga de Lieja mediante un audaz golpe de mano.
Erich Ludendorff Estratega militar alemán Nació el 9 de abril de 1865, cerca de la localidad prusiana de Posen (hoy Poznán, Polonia). Alistado en el ejército a los 18 años. En 1894 se le destinó al Gran Estado Mayor. Al mando de una brigada de infantería a comienzos de la I Guerra Mundial, tomó la ciudad fortificada de Lieja (Bélgica).